Jan 8, 2005
Continuing the Roman History section from the Fall of the Republic, Octavian emerges as Augustus in the Early Roman Empire. Augustus? ascendancy as the first Roman Emperor in 27 BC, followed by confirmation of his powers in 23 and 19 BC, marked a clear, irrevocable, yet necessary change in Roman political philosophy. No longer were [...]
Jan 6, 2005
Pontifex Maximus List This list highlights the known head priests from the founding of Rome, through to the fall of the west. After the ascension of Augustus, the office became an official title of each successive emperor, until 382 AD, when it passed to the Christian Popes. The Pontifex Maximus, Pope John Paul II today, [...]
Jan 4, 2005
Augustus With the final defeat of Antony, and Octavian?s emergence as sole political power of the Roman world, the Roman Republic still teetered on the edge of potential disaster. Despite Octavian?s victory, and initial attempts to appear as a great advocate for the return of Republican rule, the Republican system had failed irreparably….
Jan 2, 2005
Popes of Rome A list of the Christian Popes of Ancient Rome from the founding of the ‘Catholic Church’ through the fall of the Western Roman Empire.
Dec 31, 2004
Death of Antony and Cleopatra After Antony had attempted to forcibly take command of the army in Cyrene from L. Pinarius Scarpus but was refused, he considered suicide as the honorable Roman thing to do. However, perhaps he thought that final victory could still be secured if the forces in Alexandria could be properly compared. [...]
Dec 29, 2004
Continuing the list of Consuls into the 2nd Century BC, the familiar names of the imperator generals of the Late Republic begin to emerge…. Consuls of the 2nd Century BC
Dec 27, 2004
Battle of Actium The civil war between Antony and Octavian seemed assured of dwarfing even the massive conflict between Caesar and his Republican opponents. Both sides had massive armies at their disposal, and Antony added the support Rome?s eastern client kings, including Cleopatra of Egypt. By mid-summer of 31 BC, Octavian?s war against his rival, [...]
Dec 23, 2004
Pamphylia Ancient Pamphylia was situated on the southern coast of modern Turkey, nestled between Lycia, Galatia and Cilicia. This relatively small region, in comparison to territorial borders of its neighbors was sharply contrasted by the Tarsus mountains in the north, limestone foothills in the west and rich fertile plains in the river valleys of the [...]
Dec 21, 2004
War Between Antony and Octavian As the legal arrangement for the triumvirate between Octavian, Antony and Lepidus (even though he was no longer an official part of the arrangement) expired at the end of 33 BC, 32 BC turned into a year of political posturing and strained anticipation. Without legal triumvir powers, Octavian technically reverted [...]
Dec 19, 2004
Consuls of Rome 3rd Century BC The consuls list continues, and thanks to Varro, the from this point on is considered completely accurate.
Dec 17, 2004
Antony and Cleopatra After the defeat of the Republicans at Philippi, and Sextus Pompey in Sicily, Octavian set about organizing the west under his control. In the meantime, Marcus Antonius moved east to do the same, and to seek further glory against Parthia. Antony had met with Cleopatra of Egypt as early as 41 BC [...]
Dec 15, 2004
Roman Wine Types The Romans indulged in several variety of wines. This brief charts highlights some of the basic styles made from a variety of grapes along with very specific grape products that were staples of the Roman diet.
Dec 13, 2004
Sextus Pompey After the pact of Brundisium, Sextus Pompey or Magnus Pius as he called himself, son of Gnaeus Pomepius Magnus, maintained a stranglehold in Sicily and on the Roman grain supply. A short lived agreement with Antony to work in cooperation against Octavian fell apart after Brundisium, but the two triumvirs were in no [...]