Index of Roman Laws
In alphabetic order:
Lex Acilia de Intercalando (191 BC) - adjustment of the calendar
Lex Acilia Repetundarum (123 BC) - by tribune Glabrio
M' Acilius, reformed the courts for the recovery of extorted property (quaestio
de repetundis) allowing equites as jurors.
Lex Acilia et Calpurnia (67 BC) - permanent exclusion from office in
cases of electoral corruption.
Lex Aebutia de Magistratibus Extraordinariis (c. 150 BC) - the proposer
of an extra-ordinary magistracy (such as Dictator) cannot be the one to hold
Lex Aebutia de Formulis (c. 2nd century BC) - Abolished the legis actiones
litigation system in favor formulary procedure.
Leges Aelia et Fufia (about 150 BC) - Confirmed right of any curule
magistrate or tribune to disband all assemblies of the people on simple declaration
that he had witnessed an unfavorable omen, repealed by the leges clodiae in
Lex Aelia Sentia (4 AD) - consular law applied by Augustus against
the emancipation of slaves among their masters. Freed slaves who had committed
certain offenses could quickly have their liberty taken away.
Lex Antonia de Permutatione Provinciae (44 BC) - Marcus Antonius set
this law which gave him a five year's command in Cisalpine and Transalpine Gaul
in lieu of Macedon. Also gave authorization to transfer Caesar's legions from
Macedon to the new provinces.
Lex Antonia de Termessibus - alliance with Termessus
Leges Antoniae - measures of Marcus Antonius against the dictatorship etc.
Lex Appuleia Agraria et Frumentaria (100 BC) - laws
of tribune L. Appuleius Saturninus provided for land distribution to the veterans
of C. Marius nd a grain dole to the people. Demagoguery of Saturninus resulted
in his death and the annulment of this law.
Lex Aternia et Tarpeia de Multis (454 BC) - allowed
curule magistrates to fine citizens who resisted their authority.
Lex Atinia (131 or 102 BC) - Tribunes of the plebs automatically promoted
to the Senate following their term.
Lex Aufeia (124 BC) - related to the settlement of Asia Minor.
Lex Aurelia Iudiciaria (70 BC) - arranged an equitable distribution
of jury service among senators, equites, and tribunes.
Lex Baebia de Praetoribus (c. 192 BC) - set the number of praetors
elected at 4 and 6 in alternating years (largely ignored).
Lex Caecilia et Didia - (98 BC) - forbade the combination of proposed
measures in one omnibus bill and enacted that a regular interval of 3 market-days
must elapse between the proposal of a bill and its voting in the assembly.
Lex Calpurnia de Repetundis (149 BC) -by tribune L.
Calpurnius Piso, established a permanent court to monitor provincial governors.
Lex Canuleia de Conubio Patrum et Plebis (445 BC).- by C. Canuleius, reversed Twelve Table's decision of no intermarriage between patricians and plebeians.
Lex Cassia Tabellaria (137 BC) - Introduces secret
ballot in court jury decisions (except for cases of treason).
Lex Claudia de Senatoribus (218 BC) - by tribune Q.
Claudius, supported by senator C. Flaminius, prohibited senators from possessing
ships of sea-going capacity and to have unbiased commerce laws. Disregarded
by first century B.C.
Leges Corneliae (81 BC) - Laws of the dictator L. Cornelius Sulla,
intended to strengthen the senate and eliminate demagoguery legislation.
Lex Curiata de Imperio - law passed in the Comitia Curiata used to
ratify the choice of a new king, also (as de Adoptione) confirmed
Octavian's adoption as Caesar's son in 43 BC.
Lex Domitia de Sacerdotiis (104 BC) - Established election of priests
by the comitia plebis (people's assembly), which was originally chosen by the
college of Augurs.
Lex Frumentaria - A generic term meaning a law regulating price of
Lex Fufia Caninia (2 BC) - consular law imposed by Augustus, limited the number of slaves that an owner could free in his will.
(67 BC) - by tribune A. Gabinius, gave Pompey overriding command in the Mediterranean
Sea against pirate activity.
Lex Gellia et Cornelia (72 BC) - consuls of this year authorized Legates
to confer Roman citizenship. Pompey's clientela and residents of Hispania were
the primary beneficiaries at the time of passage.
Leges Genuciae (342 BC) - by plebeian consul L. Genucius, prohibited
loans which carry interest, declared that the same magisterial office should
not be held twice within ten years nor could one man hold two offices at once.
Also allowed that both consuls could be plebeians. All except the last provision
fell into disuse.
Lex Hadriana - Hadrian's law that enabled permanent tenants to develop land, it was an extension of the Lex Marciana.
Lex Hortensia (287 BC) -by plebeian dictator Q. Hortensius, said that resolutions of the Concilium Plebis (plebiscita) should have the force of law and bind the whole community, important measure for the voice of the plebs.
Lex Icilia (456 BC) - law carried by tribune L. Icilius, provided public
land on the Aventine for plebeian dwellings.
Lex Iulia (90 BC) - brought by consul L. Caesar, offered citizenship to all Italians who had not raised arms against Rome in the Italian War (Social War).
Lex Iulia de Adulteriis Coercendis (18 BC) - part of Augustus' marriage-code, made conjugal unfaithfulness a public as well as a private offense with banishment a possible penalty.
Lex Iulia de Maritandis Ordinibus (18 BC) - part of Augustus' marriage-code, marrying age celibates and young widows that won't marry were debarred from receiving inheritances and from attending public games. Similar penalties on the married but childless, and Senators couldn't marry freedwomen. It was so unpopular that in AD 9 consuls M. Papius and Q. Poppaeus tried to
modify and complete it (Lex Papia Poppaea). Domitian tried to enforce this law forgotton law a century later.
Lex Iulia Municipalis (45 BC) - preserved in inscription from Heraclea in southern Italy. Drafted by Caesar, published by Antonius, set regulations for the Italian municipalities.
Lex Iunia (126 BC) - by tribune M. Iunius Pennus, expelled those who were not citizens from Rome, preventing a possible citizenship bill to Italians by Fulvius Flaccus.
Lex Iunia Norbana (17 BC or 19 AD) - Augustus put check upon emancipation of slaves without fulfillment of proper formalities.
Lex Licinia et Pompeia (or Pompeia et Licinia) (55 BC) - Consuls Pompey
and Crassus prolonged Caesar's proconsulship in the Gauls for another 5 years.
Lex Licinia Sextia (367 BC) - by the tribunes C. Licinius Stolo and L. Sextius, set an upper limit of 500 iugera (300 acres) as the amount of public land which one person might occupy (limiting the power of the Patricii). Additionally, this law may have provided for one consul being a Plebeian, but the evidence is conflicting. Consuls with names of Plebeian origin had served before, and the Lex Genucia which has similar verbiage was passed only 25 years later.
Lex Maenia (after 293 BC) - forced the senate or patrician assembly
to grant imperium to plebeian magistrates elected by the people's assembly.
Lex Maenia et Sestia (452 BC) - fixed the scale for fines.
Lex Manilia de Imperio Cn. Pompeius (66 BC) - by C.
Manilius, gave Pompey overall command in the east to fight Mithridates VI and
Lex Marciana (around Flavian dynasty) - dealt with imperial and private cases in North Africa, regulated relations between cultivators and the proprietors.
Lex Ogulnia (c. 300 BC) - Opened the priesthoods to plebeians.
Lex Oppia (215 BC) - first of a series of sumptuary laws on women, strict but repealed after the Second Punic War ended.
Lex Ovinia (c. 312 BC) - law that gave censors, instead of consuls,
the right to revise the member list of the Senate.
Lex Papia Poppaea (9 AD) - by consuls M. Papius and Q. Poppaeus, revisions of the lex Iulia de Maritandis Ordinibus.
Lex Papiria et Iulia (or Iulia et Papria) (430 BC) - made payment of
fines in bronze mandatory.
Lex Plautia Iudiciaria (89 BC) - chose jurors from other classes, not
just the Equites.
Lex Plautia et Papiria (89 BC) - by tribunes M. Plautius and C. Papirius,
gave full citizenship to every unenfranchised freedman in Italian cities.
Lex Plautia de Reditu Lepidanorum (70 BC) - granted a pardon to exiled
associates of M. Aemilius Lepidus.
Lex Poetelia (326 BC) - required a judgement by a court authorize enslavement
before execution was carried out and alleviated much debt bondage.
Lex Pompeia de Civitate (89 BC) - by consul Cn. Pompeius
Strabo (father of Pompey), made Cisalpine Gaul a Latin rights status province.
Lex Porcia (Laeca?) (199 BC) - proposed by tribune P. Porcius Laeca
to give right of appeal in capital cases.
Lex Porcia de Tergo Civium (c. 198-184 BC) - By M. Porcius Cato Major,
prohibited scourging of citizens without appeal.
Lex Publilia (339 BC) - by plebeian dictator Publilius Philo, difficult
to discern from the Lex Valeria et Horatia of 449 and the Lex Hortensia of 287.
Required one appointed censor to be plebeian and negated the veto power of the
patrician assembly over legislation enacted in the assembly of the centuries.
Lex Publilia Voleronis de Tribunis Plebis (471) - Allowed
the election of tribunes through the people's assembly rather than the centuriate
which severely curtailed patrician influence.
Lex Roscia (49 BC) - Caesar proposed, gave citizenship to the people
of Transalpine Gaul.
Lex Rubria (c. 45 BC) - a supplement to Caesar's Lex Roscia incorporating
Cisalpine Gaul into Italy.
Lex Sacrata (494 BC) - law after first secession of the plebeians that
established the Tribunis Plebis magistracy.
Lex Sempronia Agraria (133 BC) - distribution of land to the plebes
by tribune Tiberius Gracchus. Tiberius avoided Senateorial debate and passed
the law through the assembly (a plebiscitum). Ultimately resulted in the murder
Lex Servilia Iudicaria (106 BC) - by consul Q. Servilius Caepio, some
control of property/extortion courts was handed back to senators from the equites.
Lex Servilia Glaucia de Repetundis (104 or 101 BC)
- by tribune C. Servilius Glaucia, repealed the Lex Servilia Iudicaria.
Lex Sumptuaria - A generic term for a law that regulated the use of
luxury items and public display of wealth.
Lex Terentia et Cassia (73 BC) - by consuls M. Terentius Varro and
C. Cassius Longinus, safeguarded the grain supply of Rome and distributed grain
at reduced rates.
Lex Titia (43 BC) - Gave Octavianus, Marcus Antonius and Lepidus full
power for 5 years to defeat the assassins of Caesar; and legalizes the second
Lex Valeria de Provocatione- it granted every Roman
citizen legal right to appeal against a capital sentence, defined and confirmed
the right of appeal (provocatio).
Lex Valeria Cornelia (5 AD) - the two consuls amended the procedure
for election of praetors and consuls in Comitia Centuriata. Additional group
of ten centuries (centuriae C. et L. Caesaris) were named to honor magistates
after death and gave them the preliminary choice of the candidates to stand
Lex Valeria et Horatia de Plebiscitum (449 BC) - Defined
the rights and authority of tribunes following the second plebeian secession.
Lex Vatinia (59 BC) - by tribune P. Vatinius, gave Julius Caesar governorship of Cisalpine Gaul and of Illyricum for five years.
Lex Villia Annalis (180 BC) - first law to set minimum ages for curule magistrates, Aediles 36, Praetors 39, Consuls 42 and forced a period of two years between each lesser magistracy.
Lex Voconia (169 BC) - by tribune Voconius, limited the amount of real
estate that could be willed to female heirs, but was mostly evaded due to transfers
of land to male trustees acting on the behalf of women.
Senatus Consultum - A general term meaning a decree made by the majority
of the Senate.
Senatus Consultum de re Publica Defenda - Senate decree for the defence of the Republic. Issued by the senate in cases of extreme peril for the Republic, usually to deal with internal political violence. The first decree was issued in 121 BC due to riots provoked by Gaius Gracchus.
Twelve Tables (451 BC) - The first set of Roman laws published by the Decemviri which would be the starting point of the elaborate Roman constitution. The twelve tables covered issues of civil, criminal and military law.
Did you know?
Roman law civilized the world, because wherever Rome conquered, they took their legal concepts with them and implanted them so strongly that they are still functioning in many parts of Europe today.