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Posts posted by dnewhous

  1. It looks like Genghis Khan moved into the Forbidden City and took his title in Chinese.  He was the start of the Yuan dynasty.

    I remember something else about history.  If you examine Greek and Egyptian history closely, 1174 BC is the year that everything changed.  Not exactly 1177 BC.  There are now more eras than ever in Egyptian history.  And I think that is the best year for making a division between the copper and the bronze age.  What would be the iron age?  I don't know.

    This is known as the Late Bronze Age Collapse.

    I do remember the iron age was 4th century BC in Ohio.  That was a very advanced gifted program in elementary school.  I don't remember what the event trigger was.  I'm fairly certain it was in Athens, Greece.

  2. A Greek queen considered the first woman pirate.  IIRC, the original 12 pirate captains were commissioned by her.  That's what they were talking about in Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest when they gather all of the pirates to fight the English.  Quote: "The art of piracy is deception."

  3. The castle used in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (1971) is gone.  That is a travesty.  That's the most popular king Arthur movie.  The most important part of history is preserving landmarks and its gone.


    I forgot about the Travels of Marco Polo and I don't know if I ever knew about the Decameron, which does not appear to have been published until modern times.

  4. I make a lot of errors.  Upon review, the castle that is a model does not look like the castle that is at the beginning of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (1971).  If that's from the 7th century that's one heck of a build.  It looks medieval!

    If that castle is built in the 7th century, the one at the beginning of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, then Carlisle is much older.  Late Antiquity?  More like the 4th century than the 12.  It is right up against Hadrian's Wall.

    I remember now, historically you say that construction is complete when the keystone is laid.  The year for Carlisle is 373, from raw memory.  Because of that ambiguity they can futz the age of the castle.

    It's a sadder story, but the "I too have lived a borrowed year," from Linet in Sword of the Valiant rings too true. 

    The wikipedia write up says the first reference to Camelot is Lancelot.  Au contrair, it is Le Morte D'Arthur.  In fact, it is his 3rd book that he Chretien de Troyes mentions Carlisle, not Camelot.

    It is supposed to be in Winchester.  The only tourist attraction there is called the Great Hall.  There are castles in the area that might do for sight seeing.


  5. The digireads version of the Kings of Britain doesn't list a separate translator from Geoffrey of Monmouth.  This suggests that Geoffrey of Monmouth is the translator.  Which, if you believe in God, isn't a problem.  It's actually a little bit humourous.  It's not as flowery a translation as the Penguin Classics version.  If it weren't for the authenticity of Geoffrey of Monmouth's own translation, I'd recommend it. 

    That's what funny about this and some real questions about the authenticity of historical sources come in.  What if the person sitting across from you is the source of the "manuscript?" 

    Also, the dragon Mercury is also known as "Woden."  And Wednesday is named after him.

    According to the wikipedia Woden = Odin.  Same with Britannica.

    The jape about Lancelot getting eaten by Mercury wasn't that helpful.  I think the story and I'm sorry i haven't had time to read it is that Mercury who is Merlin eats the Green Knight.  That is offensive in that the Green Knight is like the guardian spirit of Britain.  Ever play Civilization II Gold with the fantasy realm version?  If your capital is taken a guardian spirit will appear giving you a reasonable chance of retaking it.  Mercury is welsh!

    I do remember the significance of the Roger Lancelyn Green book.  "Sir Athur and his Knights of the Round Table" is considered the original title of the story because it is the original title of the story in English.  Remember Sir Gawain and the Green Knight was written by JRR Tolkien first, which is pre WWII but not as early as Sir Arthur.

    The trouble is that Hollywood keeps mining Le Morte d'Arthur, the earlier French titled book, for more of the story.  Especially Linet.   

    Now I remember the key fact of History of the King of Britain which is extraordinary.  The first king of the Britons is named Brutus.  This can be confused with Julius Caesar.  The title king of the Britons does not appear with Brutus in Le Morte D'Arthur.

    Yvain is another knight.  He is not Uther.  King Urien's son in the story of Perceval.

    The original castle was at Carlisle.  That castle is south of Hadrian's Wall.

    I see no real evidence Mercury ate anyone.

  6. Lancelot: the Knight of the Cart by Chretian de Troyes.  This appears to be the book Camelot was based on.


    I'm looking for a dragon named Mercury because there is supposed to be a tie in to the Canterbury Tales.


    Sir Gawain and the Green Knight by Simon Armitage does not have the character Linnet in it.

    Le Morte D'Arthur by Thomas Malory is the stories that Hollywood has used.

    Oh, dear. 

    Bram Stoker's Dracula Hollywood reshuffling alert.  Because of that movie they decided to retitle a lot of Hollywood movies.  And one of them that fell victim was the version of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight starring Sean Connery as the green knight in Sword of the Valiant.

    In Sword of the Valiant, Sean Connery makes clear he has come to steal the holy grail.  Also, this version has the classic line, "I too have lived a borrowed year."  I think it's a fall of Rome story, she's a priestess who knows the time of her people is coming to an end.

    The first work of fiction is now Merlin's Shame, Carmarthen Book 1.  Lancelot is mentioned there so he does not originate with Chretian de Troyes. 

    The name may remind you of the "black book of Gorthad" in the 1990 Lord of the Rings game.

    The original Sir Gawain and the Green Knight is clearly the most valuable Arthur movie, and the landmark in the original movie starring Nigel Green is lost. 

    According to Yvain, Arthur started at Carlisle and somehow moved to Westminster for later books. 

    A 3rd huge castle is in the UK at Northumberland.  It is the place Saint Aidan lived.  It is favored by Hollywood and looks genuinely medieval rather than dark ages.

  7. Did the dragon eat Lancelot for betraying the king by having sex with the queen?


    The character Linet is in Le Morte D'Arthur.  So I suppose that means that the movie Sir Gawain and the Green Knight is more from the first chapter of Le Morte D'Arthur.

    The study of the Latin alphabet is worth some study, when I was younger it supposedly was missing a 'k' and a 'j' vis a vis our English alphabet.  Now, it is the same thing.  Iulius was Julius after all?

    Harold, the Last of the Saxon Kings is the last source on world history that I find particularly inspiring to find.  It does give an alternate name for Arthur, Geraint.

  8. I think the common argument, IIRC, is that Sir Gawain and the Green Knight is considered a historical antecedent and that's where the existence of king Arthur gets its legitimacy.

    Sir Gawain and the Green Knight the movie, does not have a kiss between hero and heroine at the end.  Maybe that's why they made Total Recall.

    Had to correct, the oldest source for the UK is the Gododdin poems by Aneurin.  No need for more than one version of the Welsh poems.

    The Wife of Bath from the Canterbury Tales is connected to Le Morte d'Arthur somehow and I don't remember how.  The wife of Bath is named Alison.   There is a dragon.  The dragon's name is Mercury.  Le Morte d'Arthur talks about the God Mercury? 

  9. King of East Anglia fighting the Saxons in the 7th century.  That's not unreasonable.

    Britannica does have an entry for The History of the Kings of Britain.

    Sir Gawain and the Green Knight is by Simon Armitage - that's the historical author, and it is up again on Amazon. 

    This is where things get creepy, the man who played Arthur in Camelot is Richard Armitage. 

    The movie closest to Le Morte D'Arthur is Excalibur.

  10. The wikipedia says

    He is best known for his chronicle The History of the Kings of Britain (Latin: De gestis Britonum or Historia Regum Britanniae)[1] which was widely popular in its day, being translated into other languages from its original Latin. It was given historical credence well into the 16th century,[2] but is now considered historically unreliable.


    The biggest problem is that "Uther Pendragon" is the only name we know for Arthur's father and it is absurd, we don't have a real name.  I think there was a missing source.  The wikipedia shows his ancestor as Constantine III.  That may be, but that leaves a lot of people between.  Arthur isn't any earlier than 7th century.  

  11. An Introduction to Pyschology by William Wundt

    Principles of Psychology by William James

    Animal Intelligence by Edward L Thorndike           This is the book most recommended.

    Principles of Teaching: Based on Psychology by ELT

    Beyond the Pleasure Principle   Sigmund Freud

    Ego and the Id                  Sigmund Freud

    I don't think that Freud was wrong but I don't think that he was clear half of the time.  And there's nothing here about penis envy.

    Behaviorism                     John B Watson

    Conditioned Reflexes            Ivan Pavlov

    Science and Human Behavior BF Skinner

    Hierarchy of Needs: A Theory of Human Motivation Abraham H Maslow

    Essential Chomsky Noam Chomsky  This guy wrote for the New Republic. 

    Love at Goon Park: Harry Harlow and The Science of Affection by Deborah Blum, this one won the Pulitzer prize. 

    Decline and Fall of the Freudian Empire by H. J Eysenck

    You Just Don't Understand by Deborah Tannen (forgot about this one)

    Change Your Brain, Change Your Life by Daniel Amen.  Almost neurology rather than psychology.  After this, notice the books become rather cognitive. 

    The Seven Worst Things Good Parents Do (1999)

    Informed Consent: Legal Theory and Clinical Practice (2001)

    Thinking, Fast and Slow (2011) by Daniel Kahneman

    Rape is Rape (2013)

    Psychology: Essential Thinkers (2016) This free book on Kindle and is a good summary of significant figures in psychology.

    The Basics Melanie Klein (2018)

    Consent: the new Rules of Sex Education (2018)

    How to Stop Losing Your Shit with Your Kids (2018) not great, but there are few books on raising children

    I Never Called it Rape (2019)

    Consent for Kids (2020)

    The Summary and Analysis of Rape Culture: The Alarming Rise of Rape Culture (2021)

    Critical Thinking: Statistical Reasoning and Intuitive Judgment by Varda Liberman (Author), Amos Tversky (Author) (2024)

    Also, tongue in cheek intended, Flirting for Dummies, Relationships for dummies, Sex for dummies, making marriage work for dummies, pregnancy all in one for dummies, and emotionally focused couple therapy for dummies. 

    The Dummies series consists of pyschology for dummies (2020), child psychology and development for Dummies (2011), forensic psychology for dummies (2012) , psychology statistics for dummies (2012), social psychology for dummies (2014), and cognitive psychology for dummies (2016).

    And, Criminology for Dummies.


  12. Here's a summary in time order:

    1177 BC - Eric H Cline (2014) This is the bridge between classical and ancient Greece.  There is a controversy over the years of the bronze age v the years of the iron age.  If you say the iron age started in 1500 BC, it's hard to describe Greece before 1177 BC.  If you say the iron age starts at 1177 BC, there is a clear division.

    The Histories Herodotus of the Greco-Persian Wars (this translation first published in 1954) Written in 430 BC in the Ionic dialect of classical Greek from the Wikipedia.  Britannica calls this one "The History."

    History of the Peloponnesian War Thucyides 

    The History of Rome - Titus Livius The battle of orders?  Should discuss the beginning of knighthood.

    Hannibal - Livy 

    The Histories - Polybius (translated 2010) this is the authentic work titled "The Histories" according to Britannica.  Commensurate with the 3rd Macedonian War.

    The Conquest of Gaul - Julius Caesar 

    The Roman History: The Reign of Augustus Dio Cassius  The birth of Christ is here.  Also, the historical event of commissioning a census to discover the birthplace of the mother of God succeeded.  I have also heard that 93% of Europe's cities were founded, with the funding being in excess for every one.  Especially Vienna.  Vienna have tried to return their gold to Rome over 3000 times because of his decision.  The census is in Jesus of Nazareth.  The "divine Augustus" they refer to is Octavius Caesar.  The Romans agree to provide king Herod with amelioration for his people because of the effort the census.  What you need to understand is, Mary signed the role book in exactly the same alphabet that I am using to type this sentence.

    The Annals - Cornelius Tacitus The Oxford version has the original author's full name and I'm sure is the right title. 

    The Civil Wars - Appian 

    Parallel Lives Plutarch 

    The Lives of the Twelve Caesars Seutonius 

    Hadrian The Restless Emperor Anthony R Birley (2000)

    the World of Late Antiquity by Peter Brown (1971)

    Alaric the Goth Douglas Boin (2020)

    City of God by Saint Augustine (2012)  This is a historical work and not just a philosophical one

    The Dark Ages by Charles Oman (2017) original publication 1898, defines the dark ages as the deposition of Romulus Augustus until the reign of Hugh Capet.  The dark ages as a historical phenomenon typically ends with the reign of Charlemagne.

    Order of Antrustions by ?????  reveals the earliest Merovingian is Pharamund.

    A History of the Franks Saint Gregory of Tours 

    Clovis History of the Founder of the Frank Monarchy (2017)

    the Merovingian Kings by Ian Wood.  This ends before Charlemagne, and is therefore nowhere near as important as it should be.

    The Life of Charlemagne by Einhard.  Written contemporaneously.  Mayor of the Palace was his original adult title.  It also uses the word "accession" which is a very good word to use.  It means either inheritance of a title when your father dies or promotion by the Roman emperor himself.  But that's not a proper use of the term, the emperor is not supposed to do that.  Peerage law would probably prohibit it.  The thing is, the Merovingian kings died out.  From the names - it looks like an Ostrogothic line was chosen to inherit with Hugh Capet onwards.

    Charlemagne, King and Emperor (2019) by Janet L Nelson, this one squarely confronts the notion that the Dark Ages were contemporary with Charlemagne.  

    The Secret History by Procopius covers Justinian, the Sack of Rome (546) by Ostrogoths, who had helped Byzantium face Clovis I, and the construction of the Hagia Sophia.

    History of the Britons (2017) originally published ???

    The History of the Kings of Britain by Geoffrey of Monmouth (this translation first published in 1966) c. 1136 original publication

    Alfred the Great, (king of Wessex) (1983) originally published ????

    Harold - the Last of the Saxon Kings by Edward B Lytton ????

    Feudalism (???) by wikipedia, publication unknown.

    The Travels of Marco Polo by Marco Polo (original publication 1298, modern translation 1874)

    Decameron (2015) by Giovanni Boccaccio Norton library version

    Civilization of the Middle Ages (1993) Norman F Cantor.  Original edition 1963.  I swear this guy wrote for the New Republic.

    The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Edward Gibbon (1776) - frequently cited by The New Republic

    Napolean Bonaparte by The History Hour.  This describes the coronation properly.

    Altogether, 4 books on ancient Greece, 16 on Rome, 8 on France, and 4 on the United Kingdom, and 1 on the middle ages.

    Order of Antrustions has little copyright information.

    I've put publication dates on the more modern books.

    Also, the Secret History is Greek, rather than Roman.  It's the Byzantine empire under Justinian.

  13. There are a few other titles that have shown up

    The History of Rome - Titus Livius (Early history of Rome)

    The Histories - Polybius (Third Macedonian War - with Rome)

    Hannibal - Livy (History of the Second Punic War)

    The Conquest of Gaul - Julius Caesar 

    The -->Histories<-- Annals - Cornelius Tacitus (downfall of Nero)  this can be found under two different titles.   The Oxford version has the author's full name and I'm sure is the right title. 

    The Civil Wars - Appian (through Trajan)

    Remember, for a book to be legitimate, it has to have an ASIN number, an ISBN number, and maybe a CDRL (contract data requirements list) number.

    ASIN numbers are broader than ISBN.  According to the wikipedia, ASIN numbers are Amazon?  I remember them older than ISBN numbers.

    I think ISBN numbers are Swiss.

    ICCN numbers are library of congress numbers and they are somewhat rare.  They can be accepted or rejected after being assigned a number.  Rejected books can be rejected simply on the basis of historical mispellings, like mispelling Alulim, the first king.

    There is a quik I do remember about CDRL numbers.  A textbook with a CDRL number is indicative of a problematic classroom. 

    A CDRL number means, otherwise, that your customer wants to catalog your work.  There is some confusion.  A request for a CDRL number from a customer means they want to pay you more money.

    I don't know of any book with 3 identifying numbers that include the ICCN and not the CDRL.

    I think CDRL means contract to complete by the government.  It means it's a government contract book.

    You might wonder, under what conditions are accusations of Satanism fair?  When the book has a rejected ICCN number.

    Looking over these books it looks like the Pax Romana wasn't much of a Pax Romana.  It looks like the civil wars didn't end until Hadrian, the 3rd of the 5 good emperors.

    I would start with the History of Rome, because the Battle of Orders really shaped the world's socioeconomic structure more than anything since.  What they were missing, and I think is missing from Asian culture, is a class of people who were affluent but not wealthy.  Above middle class without the authority to dispense their own justice.  I suppose in a western sense is what it did was create the upper middle class, which is what the Clinton era gave us.  Weird jokes about teenage girls having trouble finding the keys to the family SUV were indicative of the era.

    I do realize one thing Republicans would have hated about Clintonism - attractive girls were seen as a bit hoite toite.  Headbangers didn't like that.  And headbangers have a little more going for them then simply being cool.

    There are an absurd number of variations for Plutarch.  What matters is Parallel Lives.  Right title, right author.

  14. This designation is used for any candidate who is placed on the ballot when the United States can't find someone from a major political party.  It is evidence of voter fraud.  I didn't think too much of it until I bumped into it again by starting the Honor Harrington series.  The space station is more like something out of Duke Nukem than anything else.  In this story they talk about using NPA space marines to take over the station.  

  15. After reading Britannica there are two salient facts about the Etruscans that are think are important.  One, they referred to the country they are in as "Etruria."  I've seen the word before on a map of the Roman Republic in the Oxford History of the Roman World.  I didn't know if it was the name the Etruscans used themselves or just what a historian called their territory.  It's about the size of a European Duchy.  Second, their original city in Italy is called "Villanova."

    These facts are not covered in Herodotus's The Histories.

  16.  The third Inochina war is between China and Vietnam.

    "Since the border war of February-March 1979, there have been negotiations held at irregular intervals between China and Vietnam. 
    These negotiations have been held in part to discuss the border problems. But there has been no sign of progress in this area. 
    Despite pledges of entering the talks with good intentions by both sides, neither government has made significant efforts to get 
    beyond name calling and symbolic attempts to settle the issues."

    Hood, Steven J.. Dragons Entangled: Indochina and the China-Vietnam War (p. 117). Taylor and Francis. Kindle Edition. 

    That's the very beginning of the book.  Now let's get back to the 0th Indochina war, that is WWII.

    WWII started On December 8, 1941, the United States Congress declared war (Pub.L. 77–328, 55 Stat. 795) on the Empire of Japan in response to that country's
     surprise attack on Pearl Harbor the prior day. It was formulated an hour after the Infamy Speech of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. 

    Now for the lead up to the war:

    When Japanese troops entered northern Indochina in September 1940 (in pursuance of an agreement extorted in August from the Vichy government of France), 
    the United States uttered a protest. Germany and Italy, by contrast, recognized Japan as the leading power in the Far East by concluding with it the Tripartite,
     or Axis, Pact of September 27, 1940: negotiated by Japanese foreign minister Matsuoka Yosuke, the pact pledged its signatories to come to one another’s help 
     in the event of an attack “by a power not already engaged in war.” Japan also concluded a neutrality pact with the U.S.S.R. on April 13, 1941.
     Aha!  Notice, when this happened, the United States entered a protest.  That's the watershed event.  
     FDR limited the American response to Japan’s aggressive moves to extension of another $50 million credit line to China. 
     He ratcheted up pressure on Japan by adding scrap steel and iron,vital to Japanese industrial production, to his list of embargoed exports.

    Wortman, Marc. 1941: Fighting the Shadow War: A Divided America in a World at War (pp. 120-121). Grove Atlantic. Kindle Edition. 

    I didn't realize we already had an embargo at that point.
     After the Japanese invaded southern French Indochina in July, the United States cut off oil exports to Japan. With the conflict in China rapidly consuming Japan’s
      already scarce resources and the trade embargo imposed on the country only tightening, Tokyo was determined to expand deeper into Southeast Asia to secure new 
      sources of oil and other war-making materials.

    Kupchan, Charles A.. Isolationism (p. 286). Oxford University Press. Kindle Edition. 

    More specifically, from Britannica

    On July 2, 1941, the Imperial Conference decided to press the Japanese advance southward even at the risk of war with Great Britain and the United States;
     and this policy was pursued even when Matsuoka was relieved of office a fortnight later. On July 26, in pursuance of a new agreement with Vichy France, 
     Japanese forces began to occupy bases in southern Indochina.
    Some more Britannica,  
     This time the United States reacted vigorously, not only freezing Japanese assets under U.S. control but also imposing an embargo on supplies of oil to Japan. 
     Dismay at the embargo drove the Japanese naval command, which had hitherto been more moderate than the army, into collusion with the army’s extremism. 
     When negotiations with the Dutch of Indonesia for an alternative supply of oil produced no satisfaction, the Imperial Conference on September 6, at 
     the high command’s insistence, decided that war must be undertaken against the United States and Great Britain unless an understanding with the United 
     States could be reached in a few weeks’ time.
     That lead up to the war is awful exciting.  I should really interject something here about the end of World War II.  From the wikipedia

    Victory over Japan Day (also known as V-J Day, Victory in the Pacific Day, or V-P Day[1]) is the day on which Imperial Japan surrendered in World War II, in effect bringing the war to an end. The term has been applied to both of the days on which the initial announcement of Japan's surrender was made – August 15, 1945, in Japan, and because of time zone differences, August 14, 1945 (when it was announced in the United States and the rest of the Americas and Eastern Pacific Islands) – as well as to September 2, 1945, when the surrender document was signed, officially ending World War II.

    From Brittanica,

    Truman designated MacArthur as the Allied powers’ supreme commander to accept Japan’s formal surrender, which was solemnized aboard the U.S. flagship Missouri in 
    Tokyo Bay: the Japanese foreign minister, Shigemitsu Mamoru, signed the document first, on behalf of the Emperor and his government. 
    He was followed by General Umezu Yoshijiro on behalf of the Imperial General Headquarters. The document was then signed by MacArthur, Nimitz, and representatives 
    of the other Allied powers. Japan concluded a separate surrender ceremony with China in Nanking on September 9, 1945. 
    With this last formal surrender, World War II came to an end.

    I find the separate peace with China puzzling because if you watch the video, a Chinese general does sign the document.


    It's worth noticing that Japan surrenders to several countries in that video including the Netherlands.  

    I think this document was a basis for SEATO.  The country obviously left out of the alliance: China.  

    Victory over Japan led to the First Indochina War which ended in the battle of Dien Bien Phu.  

    The First Indochina War (generally known as the Indochina War in France, and as the Anti-French Resistance War in Vietnam) began in French Indochina on December 19, 1946, and lasted until July 20, 1954. Fighting between French forces and their Việt Minh opponents in the south dated from September 1945. The conflict pitted a range of forces, including the French Union's French Far East Expeditionary Corps, led by France and supported by Bảo Đại's Vietnamese National Army against the Việt Minh,[30] led by Hồ Chí Minh[31] and the People's Army of Vietnam led by Võ Nguyên Giáp.[32] Most of the fighting took place in Tonkin in northern Vietnam,[33] although the conflict engulfed the entire country and also extended into the neighboring French Indochina protectorates of Laos and Cambodia.

    From the footage it looked like the French capitulated rather than surrendered.  There is footage of a British CH-47F performing a rescue operation.

    [youtube] Victory at Dien Bien Phu - YouTube [/youtube]

    It's worth pointing out that the first Indochina war was fought in the north and won by the communists.  Then American got involved.  And the first thing we tried was an election.  
     This information is not available on the wikipedia or Britannica any longer, but in 1954 the United States held a 3 way race for president of South Vietnam, the 
     contenders were Ngo Dinh Diem, Bo Dai, and Ho Chi Minh.  There was widespread accusations of voter fraud.  The result was the Second Indochina War.  
     The Vietnam War (Vietnamese: Chi?n tranh Vi?t Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War,[56] and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America 
     (Vietnamese: Kháng chi?n ch?ng M?) or simply the American War, was a conflict in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955[A 1] to the fall of 
     Saigon on 30 April 1975.[10]

    Some other postulated starting dates for the Vietnam War are the assassination of president Diem 2 November 1963,

    the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution August 7, 1964

    and the arrival of a marine expeditionary force in March 3, 1965.

    It's worth pointing out that the second Indochina war was fought in the south, and once again won by the communists.

    If you want to get particular about it you could say WWII wasn't finished until the legal status of Germany (a searchable topic on the wikipedia) was settled

    The Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany (German: Vertrag über die abschließende Regelung in Bezug auf Deutschland[a]), or the Two Plus Four Agreement (German: Zwei-plus-Vier-Vertrag; short: German Treaty), was negotiated in 1990 between the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic (the eponymous Two), and the Four Powers which occupied Germany at the end of World War II in Europe: France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

    World War II was a victory for NATO.  Vietnam was not a victory for SEATO.  The allied casualties for the second Indochina War look rather dreadful on the wikipedia.  And they don't even include the UK or France.  

  17. I think the historical analog for Le Roi is the good king Chlodio, and that for Johan it is Merovech.  I thought I saw mentioned a legendary castle and a forest on the wikipedia.  I will check back someday maybe and fill in more.  Maybe try the Johan and Peewit comic books.  

    K, the fort is called Dispargum, and what I think is supposed to be a forest is called Thuringia.

    This puts a lie to the movie (which takes place before the TV series) being set in the middle ages.  It's more like after the fall of Rome and before the complete breaking of the Pax Romana.  Pardon, that is a misuse of the phrase "Pax Romana."  Before all hell broke loose?

    I rewatched the movie, I found the dialog from Peewit "But you sire?" and when I heard that I thought it was the name of the king in French. 

    They've updated Britannica enough now to indicate that Merovich is the father of Childeric I who is the father of Clovis I.  That is the beginning of the Merovingian Dynasty.  

    Oddly, there's an episode guide to the Smurf's on the wikipedia that lists 9 seasons.  It has been overhauled.  It appears to have more of a narrative flow than the 16 seasons available for free with a subscription to Boomerang on Amazon.  I honestly wish I could compare, especially the early episodes.  The Boomerang episodes appear too short for American broadcast, and are definitely not the originals.  The episode Vanity Fair is not the original first episode.  It is a remake of an episode that originally aired before King Smurf.  The spelling f-a-r-e is odd.  That's a synonym for "fee."  Shouldn't it be fair as in "Scarborough Fair?"  or Vanity Fair the magazine?

    By way of comparison, Fraggle Rock costs more to rent and has DVD and Blu-ray collections.

  18. 🙂

    Isn't there an old Roman ethic that historians should stick to res publica or something like that?

    Plutarch - Parallel Lives.  First Century.  Greece of late antiquity during the Pax Romana.  The height of the power of the Roman empire.  Plutarch is wiki'd as a biographer (Britannica as well) rather than a historian.  Originally written in Koine Greek.

    Dio Cassius - The Roman History: The Reign of Augustus.  Originally written in Latin.

    Peter Brown - the World of Late Antiquity.  I didn't know about this one until I wiki'd late antiquity not knowing exactly what it referred to.  He is a modern historian exploring what we call the Dark Ages.  Originally in English.

    Eric H Cline - 1177 BC the year civilization collapsed - an exclamation point to the end of Mycenean Greece.  I didn't think we'd ever know exactly when it came to an end, but why not?  That would be the end of what most people consider the ancient world.  Originally in English.

    Procopius - The Secret History  The story of Justinian's reign.  Originally in Koine Greek.

    Ian Wood - the Merovingian Kings - covers neither Clovis I nor Charlemagne, so it's not that interesting.  It's really missing Merovich, Childeric I, Clovis I, the book as is, Charlemagne, Louis the Pious, and his 3 sons.  That puts the timeline from the namesake of the line through the end of the Carolingian Empire, in 816, as seen by the Catholic church.  Originally in English

    Geoffrey of Monmouth - The History of the Kings of Britain - AFAIK this is the original story of king Arthur included.  Written in the 12th century, in Welsh.  It appears he is an Angle?  He is fighting the Saxons in Britain.  There's no Excalibur or anything really exciting.

    As an added bonus, I'd like to provide the definition of history from the Encyclopedia Britannica:

    History, the discipline that studies the chronological record of events (as affecting a nation or people), based on a critical examination of source materials and usually presenting an explanation of their causes.


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  19. This movie picks up quite a bit at the end.  It features Christians being eaten by lions, which is why I didn't like the empire when I was young.  That's one of the first stories that I heard.  What's the difference now?  As saint Augustine wrote, Rome is the city of God.

    Anyways, this movie appears to reveal that Terpnos is the name of the devil in Roman mythology.  The name pops up on the cast list when you watch it on Amazon.  If the devil is Terpnos in Roman mythology, is it Typhon in Greek?  That might be too easy.  Typhon is the monster that fought Zeus in Greek mythology.  

  20. An excellent topic that it so much easier to discuss in the Kindle era.  There are 3 historical historians, now 10, that I know about especially relevant to this forum.

    Edward Gibbon - The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.  I found his name frequently when reading about current events when I was in highschool.  Orignally in English.  By an Englishman.

    Saint Gregory of Tours - A History of the Franks.  Disappointing.  Modern material is better.  Specifically, The Dark Ages and Clovis.  Originally in Latin

    Seutonius - The Lives of the Twelve Caesars - this is a historical work as well and I have no idea when it was first published in English.  It dates from the 2nd century.  Originally in Latin

    Herodotus - The Histories.  About ancient Greece before the fall of Athens in the Peloponnesian War.  His name is very famous and I've known it since I was a child.  His name appears in the game Civilization and its sequels along with several variations on it partly as a running gag that produces rankings in various metrics for each civilization as the game progresses.  In fact, the running gag depends heavily on how well you do.  If you do really well you'll get a list of civilizations written by Herodotus or say, Bill Clinton.  If you do badly, you get something like Ryu-odotus.   

    Originally in ancient Greek

    Herodotus does not claim that Etruscans came from Asia Minor.

    Thucyides - History of the Peloponnesian War.  Originally in ancient Greek.

  21. This is what the Dark Ages has to say about the fall of Gaul:

    By the second quarter of the fifth century the Franks were firmly established on the Scheldt and Meuse and lower Rhine, where the Roman garrisons never reappeared after the usurper Constantine had carried off the northern frontier legions to aid him in his attack on Italy (406). By this time, too, Colonia Agrippina, first of the great Roman cities of the Rhineland, seems to have already fallen into the hands of the Franks.

    Oman, Charles. The Dark Ages 476-918 A.D. (p. 39). Augustine Books. Kindle Edition. 

    and this, not altogether unsupportive of Clovis's son, is what the Decline and Fall has to say

    The Thuringians served in the army of Attila: they traversed, both in their march and in their return, the territories of the Franks; and it was perhaps in this war that they exercised the cruelties, which, about fourscore years afterwards, were revenged by the son of Clovis. They massacred their hostages, as well as their captives: two hundred young maidens were tortured with exquisite and unrelenting rage; their bodies were torn asunder by wild horses, or their bones were crushed under the weight of rolling waggons;

    Gibbon, Edward. The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (Penguin Classics) (p. 430). Penguin Books Ltd. Kindle Edition. 

    I don't have any good quotes from it, but another work about the downfall of Rome that is primarily a religious work is City of God by Saint Augustine.

  22. I will point out that except for griping about Clovis's son, there isn't much in there about the European monarchies.  

    Perhaps the most memorable quote is this

    "The story of its ruin is simple and obvious; and instead of inquiring why the Roman empire was destroyed, we should rather be surprised that it had subsisted so long. The victorious legions, who, in distant wars acquired the vices of strangers and mercenaries, first oppressed the freedom of the republic, and afterwards violated the majesty of the Purple. The emperors, anxious for their personal safety and the public peace, were reduced to the base expedient of corrupting the discipline which rendered them alike formidable to their sovereign and to the enemy; the vigour of the military government was relaxed, and finally dissolved, by the partial institutions of Constantine; and the Roman world was overwhelmed by a deluge of Barbarians."

    Gibbon, Edward. The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (Penguin Classics) (p. 449). Penguin Books Ltd. Kindle Edition. 

    That quote is the most important quote from any historian ever, it is about the nature of the relationship between freedom and self defense.