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  3. Jiro

    Roman religion quiz

    Thank you for trying the quiz! Hope you enjoyed it!🙂
  4. Roman Religion Quiz I got 3 out of 7 You have come to the end of this quiz. Share with your friends. It was a pretty difficult test, at least for me, as my score will attest. guy also known as gaius
  5. Hi guys! I created this Roman religion quiz. Would love to hear your thoughts on this!
  6. Gladius: Living, Fighting and Dying in the Roman Army by Guy de la Bédoyère Looks like an interesting book by someone whose work ( including scholarship on Roman numismatics) I greatly respect: guy also known as gaius
  7. That was very interesting. Thanks for sharing.
  8. Earlier
  9. Pompieus

    About numerous consulships

    In 342 BC the tribune L Genucius passed several reforming laws including a lex that required a hiatus of ten years between iterations of the consulship. (Livy vii.42) In 210 BC during the crisis of Hannibal's invasion, the dictator, tribunes and senate agreed to suspend the law as long as there was war in Italy. (Livy xxvii.6) This allowed the people to elect proven commanders to oppose Hannibal (viz: Q Fabius Maximus, M Claudius Marcellus, Q Fulvius Flaccus, T Sempronius Gracchus). When the 2nd Punic War ended in 202 BC, the lex Genucia went back into effect, and iterations of the consulship returned to 10 year intervals (viz: L Aemilius Paullus 182 & 168, M Aemilius Lepidus 187 & 175, Q Marcius Philippus 186 & 169 et al). However, even before Marius, there were a couple of exceptions. In 162 C Marcius Figulus and P Cornelius Scipio Nasica were elected consuls, but a fault in religious procedures caused both men to resign. Marcius was then elected consul in 156, and Nasica in 155. In 152 BC M Claudius Marcellus(iii) who had been consul in 166 and 155 BC was elected a third time to handle the "Fiery War" in Spain. Polybius and Appian pass over this event without comment, and Livy's account is lost, so we don't know if suspension of the law in 152 met serious opposition; but soon after another law was passed precluding second consulships altogether. Thus there were laws, and a long tradition that only in a crisis should the laws be suspended. And, of course, there was a political aspect in 107 BC as Marius (a novus homo) was trying to supersede the proconsul Q Caecilius Metellus who had a strong following. Also...it is anachronistic to use terms like "liberal" or "conservative" in relation to Roman politics (actually it is also probably true NOW!). Roman political groupings were personal, often temporary and rarely reflected any sort of "ideology". Mostly they were concerned with who should hold power, and what should be done with it in the short term.
  10. David Orcutt

    About numerous consulships

    Greetings to everyone. I am new here, and joined specifically to ask a question to which I’ve been unable to find an answer. I hoped perhaps someone here might be able to lead me in the proper direction. I am an “amateur” writers - meaning that I’ve written a few books (self published) about Ancient Rome. That said, I write specifically for the gratification of writing - and not to make money. I have discovered that in attempting to write, I am forced to look at the most realistic ways events came about, moreso than when I simply read that this happened, followed by that. I am currently working on a timeline of the rise and fall of Gaius Marius in regards to his liberal fight against the conservative politics of the time and this is what led me to my question. When Gaius Marius was elected to his second consulship, in 104 BC, at the close of his Numidian war, it was somewhat iconic for him to have been elected consul only 3 years from his first consulship, in 107 BC. Also, the Mos Maiorum stated that ex-Consuls were expected to wait a period of 10 years before running for the office again. Of course, Gaius Marius did not run for this second Consulship. He was not even in Rome to formally enter his candidacy, and was the result of the people of Rome, desperate after the loss of so many armies under the Consuls, Silanus, Longinus, Caepio, Maximus, etc to the migrating Germans. And then, of course, we all know that Marius continued to be elected for the 103, 102, 101, and even the 100 BC years. My question is: why was it such a big deal? Hadn’t Quintus Fabius Maximus also held multiple Consulships during the Punic Wars? 5 times if I remember correctly, and with 2 dictatorships. Does anyone know why it was acceptable for Maximus, but controversial for Marius? Or had the 10-year wait between consulships been written into the Mos Maiorum as a result of Maximus holding so many? Thank you to anyone who might have some information on this which would clarify the subject for me.
  11. Did climate change play a role with the collapse of the Roman Republic? https://theconversation.com/did-a-volcanic-eruption-in-alaska-end-the-roman-republic-141196 guy also known as gaius
  12. The Getty Institute has an interesting virtual exhibit on the legacy of Palmyra: http://www.getty.edu/research/exhibitions_events/exhibitions/palmyra/index.html Although somewhat challenging to navigate, the exhibit does have some interesting information. guy also known as gaius
  13. lothia

    Senator selection

    Thank you very much. Appreciate the reference.
  14. Cranko

    Welcome to the Imperium Forum

    Hail to all. My first post, so I hope I have the right forum? I have just started a play by email game set in 65 AD. The game is called Rome is Burning and I play Sextus Marcius Priscus, Legate of Lycia et Pamphilia. You have to create your own comites, if I am using the correct Latin name and if, indeed, a Legate was allowed to create a comites? All characters are fictional except myself. I would like to create a person responsible for the internal affairs of this province. I would use this character to answer questions. So, if there ever was a position for internal affairs in a province, what would their Latin title be please? I look forward to reading peoples replies
  15. Pompieus

    Senator selection

    By the fourth century senate membership was predominantly hereditary, but the Emperors often added new members. Constantius II founded a second senate at Constantinople, and the number of senators grew in the fourth century due to honorary appointments, and the large number of offices that came to carry senatorial status during service or on retirement (possibly as many as 2,000 in each.) A.H.M Jones "The Later Roman Empire" chapter XV gives an overview.
  16. lothia

    Senator selection

    Ave Civitas, During the period, AD 390 - 410, how were members of the Senate selected, inducted, and given a seat in the senate? Is there a source, text?, that would be available to a pauper like me that could enlighten me on the process? Again, thank you in advance.
  17. Here is an excellent article of the poetry of Augustan Rome by Professor Wiseman from "Lapham's Quarterly" (July 31, 2019). https://www.laphamsquarterly.org/roundtable/literary-arena/?ca_key_code=F98LQA1 guy also known as gaius
  18. It is staggering to think about the impact of disease, even on more modern armies. https://www.nationalreview.com/corner/they-too-gave-all-american-war-deaths-from-disease/ One can only imagine the devastation on ancient populations and armies at a time before there was any understanding of disease and its prevention . guy also known as gaius
  19. Great question and I have no idea. I guess the choice of flowers used would depend on the season and availability. Flora was the Roman goddess of flowers and the season of spring. According to Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flora_(mythology) Obviously, roses played a central role in the festival of Rose (Rosalia) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosalia_(festival) Roman poet and satirist Persius (AD 34-62) stated that during the festival of Floralia: (Both vetches and lupins are flowering plants.) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Floralia Lavender was frequently used in ancient Rome as soap and perfumes. I would be surprised if it weren't used in religious ceremonies. Although marigolds were common in ancient Roman gardens and were used medicinally (for wounds and cramping). It was even thought to possess magical qualities, but I am uncertain about its use in religion. Not being a botanist, I don't understand the terminology of the marigold. If my understanding is correct, however, the marigold is from the genus Calendura. If the marigold is included, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calendula https://www.permaculturenews.org/2018/03/30/calendula/ guy also known as gaius
  20. I found this interesting and entertaining video on the importance of Egypt on ancient Rome, especially as a conduit for trade (thus, a source of revenue), as well as a rich supply of Egyptian grains and other local products. Not mentioned in this fascinating video was that the Egyptian economy was a closed one (coins did not circulate into or out of Egypt. Its coins, therefore, did not compete with circulating gold and silver coins from the rest of the Empire. According to Kenneth Harl, in his book Coinage in the Roman Economy, Egypt could create the world's first successful fiduciary currency. (Fiduciary currency cannot be redeemed for a monetary reserve of a precious metal such as gold or silver. This is similar to paper currency or modern coinage.) This allowed for a stable economic system not nearly as devastated by the frequent devaluations of the coinage elsewhere in the empire. guy also known as gaius
  21. Denny

    Augustan History

    Whilst most of the Augustan works are pure fabrication it's important not to throw the baby out with the bathwater. There are indeed at least some nuggets of genuine historical knowledge contained in the works. The Augustan History states that before Hadrian built his walls in northern Britain, the Emperor Antoninus had already built another wall further north. This was ignored for centuries until archaeology proved the claim correct. Apart from the well known and obvious do any members know of any other 'hidden gems' in the works?
  22. The magazine "Archaeology" from the Archaeological Institute of America is always a great source of insightful study. Here is an interesting and controversial article about the Parthenon: https://www.archaeology.org/issues/380-2005/digs/8615-digs-greece-parthenon-name guy also known gaius
  23. A nice basic video on Latin for those of us who either failed at learning Latin or never attempted: guy also known as gaius
  24. I was wondering which variety of flowers the ancient Romans used to decorate their temples? I have been to India and saw that they put marigolds everywhere around temples, often in offering bowls or floating on water. Interestingly the scientific name of marigold is tagetes, which owe its name to Tages, an Etruscan god adopted by the Romans and later said to be one of Jupiter's grandsons. Does that mean that marigold could have also played a role in Roman religion? What about other flowers?
  25. Thanks for sharing it, it's a wonderful article.
  26. Here's an article from two years ago, offering hope for the future despite uncertain times. It still gives hope even today: ESSAY WHY I’M STAYING IN ROME, EVEN WHILE IT CRUMBLES A British Novelist Will Remain in the Eternal City Because of What Its Past Can Teach About Surviving the Present https://www.zocalopublicsquare.org/2018/08/14/im-staying-rome-even-crumbles/ideas/essay/ guy also known as gaius
  27. Given the current global fiscal crisis, people are searching for historical precedents. Few of us remember the economic collapse of 33 AD during the reign of Tiberius. Despite his many faults, Tiberius and his advisors were able to navigate the banking crisis of 33 AD. The impact of the banking crisis seems to have been relieved by an early form of "quantitative easing." https://www.businessinsider.com/qe-in-the-financial-crisis-of-33-ad-2013-10 A shortage of money from bank failures and the resulting contraction of credit threatened to bankrupt the leading families of Rome and destabilize the entire Empire by 33 AD. The crisis began a few years before these bank failures, however, with the execution of the corrupt and nefarious praetorian prefect Sejanus and his allies in 31 AD. After the arrest and execution of Sejanus and his allies, their illegally confiscated lands began to flood the market. This caused a deflationary pressure in land prices and a reduction of taxes. This, of course, began a deflationary cycle as prices collapsed and tax revenue decreased. Attempts where made to stabilize land prices by Tiberius. He forced all Senators to purchase land with one third of their total wealth in an attempt to prop up these falling land prices. Senators were forced to quickly make large withdraws of money from the banks for these purchases. The banks were forced to liquidate their own assets and call in their loans to cover these overwhelming withdraws. As described in the quote above, the recent loss of ships holding a sizable amount of the banks' assets only made the situation worse. This panic caused a bank run and banks quickly began to fail. This failure of the banking system made the deflationary pressures worse. As tax revenues plummeted and the banking system collapsed, commerce and industry was disrupted. Without adequate funding as a result of decreased revenues, government and military institutions began to fail. Economic and political pressures threatened to destroy the Empire which was now at the brink of anarchy. Tiberius adroitly staved off disaster, however. In 33 AD, Tiberius offered reliable bankers interest free loans for three years. These banks were required to use land as collateral, thus stopping the deflationary spiral. These emergency measures of ancient "quantitative easing" brought calm to a broken credit system and saved the Empire. https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_Influence_of_Wealth_in_Imperial_Rome/The_Business_Panic_of_33_A.D. This is better explained in the video below (at about 14:37) guy also known as gaius
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