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  3. Book (Volume) I of Seneca's "De Ira" in Latin is here: https://www.thelatinlibrary.com/sen/sen.ira1.shtml Book II in Latin is here: https://www.thelatinlibrary.com/sen/sen.ira2.shtml Book III in Latin is here: https://www.thelatinlibrary.com/sen/sen.ira3.shtml (Question 1) Do you agree or disagree with Plato's maxim below? In Book I, Section XIX, Seneca describes "he who while free from anger assigns to each man the penalty which he deserves". Seneca comments: Certainly there is a pragmatic aspect to Plato's idea. That is, Plato bases his maxim on the only practical use for punishment being to stop further crime. On the other hand, doesn't such reasoning contradict the theory behind the divine Last Judgment? During the Last Judgment, God would reward or punish everyone according to their deeds, beliefs, and personal worth, even though there is no practical use in stopping the culprits' future misconduct because they are already dead. On the other hand, it could be argued that the hopes and fears of future reward and punishment, such as in the Afterlife, have practical value in influencing altruism and crime.(Question 2) How does Seneca's theory that the gods neither wish harm nor are capable of harm compare with Calvin's and Augustine's ideas of destiny, predestination and fate? Does Seneca consider the gods responsible for the natural order and uncaring about going out of their way to harm people, whereas Calvin and Augustine see God as particularly attentive to humans' fates? In Book II, Seneca appears to not consider the gods responsible for people's destiny I read that John Calvin took his fatalism and his idea of predestination in part from the Stoics. Here, Seneca does not seem to portray the gods as particularly responsible for people's fates. In contrast, I think that Calvin believed that due to His omniscience and omnipotence, God was truly and fully responsible for peoples' fates, and that therefore people did not really have free will. (Question 3) Can you explain Seneca's idea, underlined below? In Book II, Chapter 30, Seneca writes: "Is it a good man who has wronged you? do not believe it: is it a bad one? do not be surprised at this; he will pay to someone else the penalty which he owes to you—indeed, by his sin he has already punished himself." (Question 4) Let me ask about Seneca's instructions for situations where assailants are stronger than their victims. If someone severely hurt someone else, like inflicting rape or another injury, shouldn't the victim choose to press charges, effectively using the courts and state for revenge? If a stronger person keeps bullying or hurting you, what about the effectiveness of fighting back in order to get the bullying to stop, even though your opponent is stronger? I like a lot of what Seneca says on this topic in Book III, but I am uncertain about the last scenario he refers to, where the assailant is stronger: (Question 5) What do you think about Seneca's recommendation against great undertakings or those which will not give us success, when the challenges are great, daunting moral ones like the abolition of slavery or Apartheid? Living in the early 19th or mid 20th c., respectively, success in abolishing them was not attained, and was also stressful, yet was it also not a worthy task nonetheless? In Book III, Seneca recommends against great undertakings or those which will not give us success: On the other hand, perhaps Seneca's comments about such real life situations hold major truths. I have experienced instances where I wanted or tried something great and it was beyond my grasp, depending on how one looks at it. (Question 6) Do you agree with Seneca's claim, underlined below? In Book III, Section XXVI, Seneca recommends bearing one's injuries, and compares this endurance to bearing mistreatment from a sick or insane person. He then asserts that the evil-doers will still undergo punishment:
  4. Some writers have proposed that Seneca, in his essay "On Anger"/"De Ira", alluded to Jesus when he spoke of a foreign crucified leader. It is perhaps relevant that Seneca dedicated "On Anger" to his older brother Gallio, who in the Book of Acts rejected a Jewish petition to punish Paul for contradicting the Torah. Since it was written after January 41 AD, Seneca could have reasonably known about Jesus when he composed De Ira. Volume I of De Ira in Latin is here: https://www.thelatinlibrary.com/sen/sen.ira1.shtml Volume II of De Ira in Latin is here: https://www.thelatinlibrary.com/sen/sen.ira2.shtmlIn his first chapter, Seneca introduces general philosophical criticisms of anger, also noting how angry people act like they are crazy. Then in chapter 2 in De Ira, in order to further criticize anger, give examples, and show the reader how it is harmful and cruel, Seneca lists manifestations of anger and then six cases of leaders who were the unfortunate victims of anger: The underlined phrase says in Latin, "alium in cruce membra diffindere". Seneca here is suggesting his own sympathy for the victims and finds that they were treated unjustly. He lists the crucified one last, which suggests that this victim was the latest in the list. By listing the crucified victim last, he also suggests that this one was dealt with most severely, since in the preceding sentences, Seneca builds up his list of manifestations of anger, going from "slaughterings" up to describing whole territories destroyed and turned into desert by anger. (Question 1) Would you have access to Léon Herrmann's book Chrestos, read French, or consider it helpful in understanding the passage? The reason that I ask is that I have found few scholars trying to interpret this passage. Livio Stechini draws several conclusions about the figures in the passage based on Hermann's book, writing: (Question 2) Could one of those killed really have been Pompey, as Stechini theorized above? The Wikipedia article says that Pompey was stabbed by three assassins, the first Achillas was head of the army, Lucius Septimius had been an officer, and the third was Savius (I don't know if he was a slave). Septimius "thrust a sword into Pompey and then Achillas and Savius stabbed him with daggers." (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pompey#Civil_war_and_assassination) The Tektonics webpage comments on Stechini's theory: It would make sense that Seneca did not name the leaders killed if they (like Jesus) were out of favour with or killed by Rome, since Seneca reasonably might not have wanted to openly appear to be supporting them. It also makes sense that the 6th person listed would be a foreigner, since he suffered crucifixion. (Question 3) Did Ptolemy of Mauretania have his throat was cut by a slave? Ben Smith of the Text Excavation project wrote: I am skeptical about the proposals for these candidates. Ptolemy of Mauretania was killed in 40 AD, but I couldn't find confirmation that his throat was cut by a slave. I am also very skeptical that the 6th figure listed above could have been Gavius or the crucified general Hannibal. Gavius was a Roman citizen, but I didn't find him described as a leader or "chief". Wenhua Shi writes about Gavius and Hannibal in his book Paul's Message of the Cross as Body Language: Furthermore, the Hannibal mentioned above was a general crucified in 238 BC or 257 BC, long before Pompey or Ptolemy of Mauretania, whom Seneca likely listed before the crucified, 6th "chief". While Hannibal's killing in the form of crucifixion was severe, it would have been foreseeable (unlike a particularly unlucky surprise fate) in that he was a general waging a war during a time when captives were sometimes crucified, as when Alexander of Macedonia crucified many people in Tyre after his conquest. There is a pattern of people in Seneca's list being killed in some treacherous circumstance, like stabbing someone in his bed or killing someone else when the rules of hospitality demanded their protection. General Hannibal's killing by his own men would fit that pattern, but the peaceful Jesus' betrayal by Judas and his accusation by the Sanhedrin and crucifixion for being a rebel "king of the Jews" despite seeking a heavenly kingdom instead of an earthly one would fit that mold too. (Question 4) Was the Carthaginian general Hannibal crucified in 238 BC after defeat in Sardinia or 257 BC after defeat in Tunis? Wikipedia has this entry for Hannibal: The Livius encyclopedia has this entry for Hannibal: (Question 5) Is it correct to say that Regulus was killed by crucifixion? Regulus was a Roman consul killed by the Carthaginians in 250 BC: Elsewhere Seneca does write about Regulus' crucifixion: Certainly Seneca reveres Regulus, and by including him in a book "On Providence" shows that Regulus was "ill-fated". Plus, he was killed in treacherous circumstances, since he was acting as a diplomat from Rome to Carthage. So he looks like a good candidate. However, Regulus was not a nation's "chief", nor did he die after Pompey or Ptolemy of Mauritania. One thing that makes me question whether Regulus was killed by crucifixion is how Seneca writes in an Epistle about Regulus being in a chest: Note Tetullian's passage about Regulus in On Martyrs and compare it with Seneca's description of the crucified chief in Latin ("alium in cruce membra diffindere"):
  5. Pakobckuu

    avatar questions

    Maybe they were worried about trolls, spammers, and bots coming on and posting useless messages and this is a way to narrow down the possibility. Personally, I like it better when they don't do it this way, but lots of forums do.
  6. Pakobckuu

    Significance of Avatar/ Profile Name

    I plan on using an avatar that says Packback, because it's a logo that bears similarity to the way that my username looks.
  7. I rate it 5. It's a decent Roman picture, but it's too blurry.
  8. Last week
  9. guy

    Gift for student

    I agree with the idea of giving a book that deals with science in Ancient Rome The problem with that idea, however, is the fact that most scientists (especially physicians) of Ancient Rome were of Greek descent and wrote in Greek (and not in Latin). One book that I own (but have not read, yet) is "The Genesis of Science: The Story of Greek Imagination." Although the book does deal with mostly scientists from ancient Greece, it does include information about Greeks living in the Ancient Roman Empire. Another possible book would be one about Eratosthenes who made a fairly accurate estimate about the size of the earth in 240 BCE. I have no book recommendation for that topic, however. Good luck, guy also known as gaius
  10. smulleni

    Gift for student

    Salvete the student who is winning the latin award is going into the sciences especially rocket science(or whatever branch that is called lol), can anyone recommend a book that would be a good gift for his future career? maximas gratias
  11. Battle of Blenheim (1704). The defeat of the French by the England / Scotland (Duke of Marlborough) and the Austrians (Prince Eugene of Savoy) changed the course of modern European history. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Blenheim This battle essentially ended France's delusions of European hegemony. The English victory solidified the young constitutional monarchy under Queen Anne.
  12. Earlier
  13. gabrielbell

    Roman bread recipe (spelt)

    Looks great, I'd love to make Roman foods also, the other ancient roman recipe sharing with you, hope you like it also
  14. caldrail

    Gladiatrix - source?

    Interesting, because the padding would only apply to one leg (the one leading which would be under her shield and therefore prone to bruising injuries). Sources mention female gladiators in passing, from their arrival as comedy sets during the reign of Nero to their ban as proper fighters by Septimius Severus. I don't know the source you're looking for but it would seem to be a private letter.
  15. gabrielbell

    Interests

    Valentinian III, Latin in full Flavius Placidius Valentinianus, (born July 2, 419, Ravenna [Italy]—died March 16, 455, Rome), Roman emperor from 425 to 455. At no time in his long reign were the affairs of state personally managed by Valentinian. He was the son of the patrician Flavius Constantius (who ruled as Constantius III in 421) and Galla Placidia. When his uncle, the emperor Honorius, died in 423, the usurper John ruled for two years before he was deposed. Then Placidia controlled the West in her young son’s name until 437, although the powerful patrician Flavius Aetius became the effective ruler toward the end of this regency. The most important political event of these years was the landing of the Vandals in Africa in 429; 10 years later they threw off the overlordship of Valentinian’s government. Valentinian was utterly unable to stop their attacks on Italy.
  16. The Battle of Artah was fought in 1105 between Crusader forces and the Seljuk Turks at the town of Artah near Antioch.
  17. caldrail

    Overlaps, Based on True Events, and Historical Fictions

    Giants are universally present in ancient literature in some form or fashion. Even the Bible mentions a race of them (There is currently a belief in many researchers that a race of giant hominoids lived on Sardinia. So far real evidence is lacking among accusations of cover-ups and conspiracy theories, but to be honest, giant species wouldn't normally evolve on an island - the small enviroment tends to promote smaller individuals). But culture can adopt literature all too easily. The classic example is the "Holy Grail". There was a 'Holy Chalice' mentioned in three biblical gospels, but the Grail - not originally holy, first arrives in the late twelth century as a prop in a story called Perceval written by Chretien Des Troyes. The hero witnesses a ritual in which the grail is used, but the author died before finishing it, so we don't discover exactly what it is. Some time later Robert De Boron wrote Joseph D'Aramathie, which describes the Grail in a christian context for the first time. The christian church has long been happy to fuse the two objects together and now around two hundred objects are claimed to be the Grail. Then of course you have that silly Blood Royal alternative. In other words, people are seeking reality from a prop in a medieval romance. Just don't get me started on the Bible
  18. Crispina

    Roman bread recipe (spelt)

    Looks wonderful, but I have never tasted spelt. An organic farmer friend of mine grows it. Can you describe the taste?
  19. Some shredding off the new Haiduk album ‘Exomancer’! [black/death metal] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-1lW1MkZqkw
  20. Another interesting video on the Roman-Romano-Egyptian-Indian trade route: https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archives_de_Nicanor guy also known as gaius
  21. Decimus Junius Brutus

    Roman bread recipe (spelt)

    Another bread loaf
  22. kingoftheamericas

    Overlaps, Based on True Events, and Historical Fictions

    "he slew a giant"
  23. Where do History and Literature meet? Is one really that different from the other? In a book "Heroes and Hero Worship" we see a great man or woman's feats and their exploits recorded by reporters and witnesses. Yet often in less than a generation, these 'great feats' become legendary. He didn't knock out a big man, me slew a giant. Instead of using bread for bait and netting a bunch of fish to feed friends, the person multiplied the meager for all the masses. Then when modern researchers look for the mythical legend, they find fictions...overgrown facts. This is then used to claim the individual(s) never existed at all. King Arthur, Beowulf, Budda, Yeshua, Achillies, Caesar, Aragorn...who were they, really? Pure fictions, or overgrown legends turned myths? A man named Heinrich Schliemann took Homer's "fictions" and found a real Troy. Does that make Homer's work a history? How many accurate facts are required for Literature to become History? The more I read, research, and find, the more I conclude that these two studies should be combined.
  24. Decimus Junius Brutus

    Copadia

    I used a Asian salty fish paste as a sub. It was really delicious. I saw the supersizers a long time ago. Loved watching them. I recomend this recipe to anyone that like a slow cook winter special.
  25. guy

    Copadia

    A somewhat silly, but also informative episode about food in ancient Rome from the series "Supersizers":
  26. guy

    Copadia

    Interesting. Did you use a substitute for garum, the ancient fermented fish sauce? I have read that a Vietnamese fish sauce is similar as well as the Italian Colatura di alici (anchovy sauce). (Neither sound too appetizing, however.) https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2015/aug/26/garum-sauce-colatura-di-alici-italy-fish guy also known as gaius
  27. Pompieus

    Senatus Consultatum

    Persians? In the first century BC Iran was controlled by the Arsacid dynasty. The Arsacids were Parthians, originally from northern Iran. "Persia" usually means southern Iran, from which the Achaemenid and Sassanian dynasties arose. There is not a lot of data on the Parthians other than coins and references in surviving Greek and Latin literature. Even the Arsacid "king list" is not totally clear, but probably included Mithridates II ~123-88BC, Artabanus II or Orodes ~80, and Sinatruces ~77-70. Mithridates II sent an envoy to Sulla requesting friendship and alliance in 92BC, and in 72BC Sinatruces refused a request for help from Mithridates of Pontus.
  28. Decimus Junius Brutus

    Copadia

    It was delicious. Went really well with the polenta cheese bread.
  29. Decimus Junius Brutus

    Copadia

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