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guy last won the day on July 4

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    SouthWest USA (345 miles from Las Vegas)
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    Ancient Roman history, The Dutch Golden Age of Art (16th-17th century), Poker, blues guitar, Pittsburgh Pennsylvania (My birthplace), Reggio Emilia, Italy (My ancestral home), Las Vegas, Nevada (My Mecca), One wife, two kids, one dog, two cats

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  1. Roman Religion Quiz I got 3 out of 7 You have come to the end of this quiz. Share with your friends. It was a pretty difficult test, at least for me, as my score will attest. guy also known as gaius
  2. Gladius: Living, Fighting and Dying in the Roman Army by Guy de la Bédoyère Looks like an interesting book by someone whose work ( including scholarship on Roman numismatics) I greatly respect: guy also known as gaius
  3. Did climate change play a role with the collapse of the Roman Republic? https://theconversation.com/did-a-volcanic-eruption-in-alaska-end-the-roman-republic-141196 guy also known as gaius
  4. The Getty Institute has an interesting virtual exhibit on the legacy of Palmyra: http://www.getty.edu/research/exhibitions_events/exhibitions/palmyra/index.html Although somewhat challenging to navigate, the exhibit does have some interesting information. guy also known as gaius
  5. Here is an excellent article of the poetry of Augustan Rome by Professor Wiseman from "Lapham's Quarterly" (July 31, 2019). https://www.laphamsquarterly.org/roundtable/literary-arena/?ca_key_code=F98LQA1 guy also known as gaius
  6. It is staggering to think about the impact of disease, even on more modern armies. https://www.nationalreview.com/corner/they-too-gave-all-american-war-deaths-from-disease/ One can only imagine the devastation on ancient populations and armies at a time before there was any understanding of disease and its prevention . guy also known as gaius
  7. Great question and I have no idea. I guess the choice of flowers used would depend on the season and availability. Flora was the Roman goddess of flowers and the season of spring. According to Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flora_(mythology) Obviously, roses played a central role in the festival of Rose (Rosalia) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosalia_(festival) Roman poet and satirist Persius (AD 34-62) stated that during the festival of Floralia: (Both vetches and lupins are flowering plants.) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Floralia Lavender was frequently used in ancient Rome as soap and perfumes. I would be surprised if it weren't used in religious ceremonies. Although marigolds were common in ancient Roman gardens and were used medicinally (for wounds and cramping). It was even thought to possess magical qualities, but I am uncertain about its use in religion. Not being a botanist, I don't understand the terminology of the marigold. If my understanding is correct, however, the marigold is from the genus Calendura. If the marigold is included, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calendula https://www.permaculturenews.org/2018/03/30/calendula/ guy also known as gaius
  8. I found this interesting and entertaining video on the importance of Egypt on ancient Rome, especially as a conduit for trade (thus, a source of revenue), as well as a rich supply of Egyptian grains and other local products. Not mentioned in this fascinating video was that the Egyptian economy was a closed one (coins did not circulate into or out of Egypt. Its coins, therefore, did not compete with circulating gold and silver coins from the rest of the Empire. According to Kenneth Harl, in his book Coinage in the Roman Economy, Egypt could create the world's first successful fiduciary currency. (Fiduciary currency cannot be redeemed for a monetary reserve of a precious metal such as gold or silver. This is similar to paper currency or modern coinage.) This allowed for a stable economic system not nearly as devastated by the frequent devaluations of the coinage elsewhere in the empire. guy also known as gaius
  9. The magazine "Archaeology" from the Archaeological Institute of America is always a great source of insightful study. Here is an interesting and controversial article about the Parthenon: https://www.archaeology.org/issues/380-2005/digs/8615-digs-greece-parthenon-name guy also known gaius
  10. A nice basic video on Latin for those of us who either failed at learning Latin or never attempted: guy also known as gaius
  11. Here's an article from two years ago, offering hope for the future despite uncertain times. It still gives hope even today: ESSAY WHY I’M STAYING IN ROME, EVEN WHILE IT CRUMBLES A British Novelist Will Remain in the Eternal City Because of What Its Past Can Teach About Surviving the Present https://www.zocalopublicsquare.org/2018/08/14/im-staying-rome-even-crumbles/ideas/essay/ guy also known as gaius
  12. Given the current global fiscal crisis, people are searching for historical precedents. Few of us remember the economic collapse of 33 AD during the reign of Tiberius. Despite his many faults, Tiberius and his advisors were able to navigate the banking crisis of 33 AD. The impact of the banking crisis seems to have been relieved by an early form of "quantitative easing." https://www.businessinsider.com/qe-in-the-financial-crisis-of-33-ad-2013-10 A shortage of money from bank failures and the resulting contraction of credit threatened to bankrupt the leading families of Rome and destabilize the entire Empire by 33 AD. The crisis began a few years before these bank failures, however, with the execution of the corrupt and nefarious praetorian prefect Sejanus and his allies in 31 AD. After the arrest and execution of Sejanus and his allies, their illegally confiscated lands began to flood the market. This caused a deflationary pressure in land prices and a reduction of taxes. This, of course, began a deflationary cycle as prices collapsed and tax revenue decreased. Attempts where made to stabilize land prices by Tiberius. He forced all Senators to purchase land with one third of their total wealth in an attempt to prop up these falling land prices. Senators were forced to quickly make large withdraws of money from the banks for these purchases. The banks were forced to liquidate their own assets and call in their loans to cover these overwhelming withdraws. As described in the quote above, the recent loss of ships holding a sizable amount of the banks' assets only made the situation worse. This panic caused a bank run and banks quickly began to fail. This failure of the banking system made the deflationary pressures worse. As tax revenues plummeted and the banking system collapsed, commerce and industry was disrupted. Without adequate funding as a result of decreased revenues, government and military institutions began to fail. Economic and political pressures threatened to destroy the Empire which was now at the brink of anarchy. Tiberius adroitly staved off disaster, however. In 33 AD, Tiberius offered reliable bankers interest free loans for three years. These banks were required to use land as collateral, thus stopping the deflationary spiral. These emergency measures of ancient "quantitative easing" brought calm to a broken credit system and saved the Empire. https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_Influence_of_Wealth_in_Imperial_Rome/The_Business_Panic_of_33_A.D. This is better explained in the video below (at about 14:37) guy also known as gaius
  13. https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/mar/18/remaining-calm-in-adversity-what-stoicism-can-teach-us-during-the-coronavirus-pandemic
  14. We are all learning to appreciate the devastation that a pandemic can have on a society. Both pandemics and environmental disasters can have underappreciated lasting impacts on society. https://www.nationalreview.com/corner/today-in-1815-the-great-volcano-of-tambora/ guy also known as gaius