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guy last won the day on August 27

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    SouthWest USA (345 miles from Las Vegas)
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    Ancient Roman history, The Dutch Golden Age of Art (16th-17th century), Poker, blues guitar, Pittsburgh Pennsylvania (My birthplace), Reggio Emilia, Italy (My ancestral home), Las Vegas, Nevada (My Mecca), One wife, two kids, one dog, two cats

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  1. I say, "Throw him to the lions!"
  2. This is a nice review of the Seleucid Empire (312-63 BCE). This empire was created after Alexander the Great died and his Macedonian Empire splintered apart.
  3. https://www.skylinewebcams.com/en/webcam/italia/lazio/roma/pantheon.html https://www.skylinewebcams.com/en/webcam/italia/lazio/roma/roma-colosseo.html Enjoy, guy also known as gaius
  4. https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-wales-52911797 Here's an interesting older video describing the laser technique that makes 3D terrain maps that can examine the underlying terrain beneath the vegetation. This information was put on an open data website, allowing students of ancient Roman history to discover long-forgotten Roman roads and encampments in Wales and the rest of Britain. guy also known as gaius
  5. I think some of the features of the emperors may be totally imaginary. For many, if not most of the emperors, there is only numismatic evidence and a few sculptures to recreate these images. Carus and his heirs (Carinus and Numerian) may have been from either Gaul, Illyricum , or Africa. These diverse backgrounds would give very different physical features (eyes, hair, and skin) from those proposed. g.
  6. The Severan Tondo is contemporary with Septimius Severus, depicting Septimius, his wife and two children. The defaced face is supposedly Geta who suffered damnatio memoriae. I always found it interesting that Septimius Severus spoke with a Punic accent. (Historia Augusta, XIX.9) H His sister could scarcely speak Latin at all, XV.7: http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Historia_Augusta/Septimius_Severus*.html g.
  7. Thank you. These are very powerful portraits, if they are even just close to being accurate. I would also like to see a similar images of their wives. 😎 The portraits of Septimius Severus and his children (Caracalla and Geta) certainly reflect their Carthaginian (North African) origins: Nero looks the part of the scoundrel: Here's another depiction of Nero from a different source: https://www.sciencealert.com/this-spanish-artist-made-a-life-like-sculpture-of-nero-and-it-s-just-how-you-d-imagine Thank you, again, guy also known as gaius
  8. Zoroastrianism was one of the competing religious faiths from the East during the history of ancient Rome. In fact, Zoroastrianism was the state religion of Rome's great rival the Sassanid Empire. In fact, Sassanian coins frequently showed a fire temple, important in the religion of Zoroastriansim. (Source: Sassanian Coinage Wikipedia) Here's a good video reviewing Zoroastrianism: If nothing else, I learned that Freddy Mercury from Queen was Zoroastrian. guy also known as gaius
  9. The Lycurgus cup (probably from the 4th century) has long fascinated students of ancient history and scientists alike. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lycurgus_Cup First, it is a cage or reticulated cup, with "an outer cage or shell of decoration that stands out from the body of the cup." "It has mostly been accepted that the cage cups were made by cutting and grinding a blank vessel of solid thick glass, a laborious technique at which the Greeks and Romans were very experienced." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cage_cup Second, it is made of dichroic glass, meaning it changes color depending on the lighting conditions. Whether the dichronic glass was planned or just the result of an incidental contaminant with nanoparticles such as silver and gold which cause this effect is unknown. Also, we don't know whether this was really a cup after all since the rim and feet of the cup were more modern additions. It could have been an oil lamp, instead.
  10. This is an interesting exhibit now at the Uffizi in Florence, Italy "Worn by the Gods." https://www.uffizi.it/en/events/worn-by-the-gods Replica of alleged prostitute's shoe with the message (in Greek) "Follow me" on the sole of the shoe. (Seen at 1:50 of embedded video in above link.) guy also known as gaius
  11. guy

    How is your lockdown?

    Honestly, for me, this has been the least productive five months of my life. I was supposed to be in Italy this fall, visiting relatives and "working" on the farm. Obviously, it's not gonna happen. Oh, well, I must be grateful that I'm still alive to witness this insanity unfold. I hope everyone is maintaining their health and spirits during these challenging times. guy also known as gaius
  12. Here are some interesting links to the study suggesting that the colorless glass known in ancient Rome as Alexandrian glass really was made in Egypt after all (and not the nearby Levant region): So, the studies seem to support the ancient report that "Alexandrian" glass truly came from Egypt and not from the Levant (Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, and parts of Turkey). https://www.archaeology.wiki/blog/2020/07/10/hafnium-isotopes-clinch-origin-of-high-quality-roman-glass/ https://www.realclearscience.com/quick_and_clear_science/2020/07/13/where_did_romes_famous_alexandrian_glass_come_from.html https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/romes-finest-glass-was-made-egypt-180975482/ guy also known as gaius (Thank you Al Kowsky from cointalk.com for bringing this study to my attention.)
  13. In an excellent National Geographic article "What History Has Taught Us: Stopping Pandemics" by Richard Conniff (August 2020), there is a reference to cocolitzli epidemics that devastated Mexico in the 16th century. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cocoliztli_epidemics#:~:text=The cocoliztli epidemic or the,by high fevers and bleeding. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2730237/#:~:text=The 1545 and 1576 cocoliztli,of Mexico (Figure 1). Conniff writes: Cocolitzli 1 (1545-48, Mexico) The little-understood disease killed up to 80% of the native population. Symptoms included high fever, headaches, and bleeding from the eyes, nose, and mouth. (15 million deaths) Cocolitzli 2 (1576-78, Mexico) The disease killed up to 2.5 million people, half of population remaining after the 1540s pandemic. It caused hemorrhagic fevers and possibly was carried by rodents. (2.5 million deaths) This devastating epidemic in Mexico makes me reconsider the long-accepted belief that it was smallpox that devastated the Roman Empire. Other possibilities include the hemorrhagic fevers (possibly now extinct) that devastated Mexico in the more recent past. Here are a list of known viral hemorrhagic fevers: Source: Great Courses: "An Introduction to Infectious Disease" by Dr. Barry C. Fox If nothing else, COVID-19 has taught us that we have a lot to learn about infectious diseases. guy also known as gaius Addendum: As discussed in a previous post, parathyphoid fever seems like a possible culprit. This interesting blog suggests a "mixed infection," with both parathyphoid and a hemorrhagic fever being the culprits :http://www.historicalblindness.com/blogandpodcast//cocoliztli-the-mystery-pestilence