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guy last won the day on January 28

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    SouthWest USA (345 miles from Las Vegas)
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    Ancient Roman history, The Dutch Golden Age of Art (16th-17th century), Poker, blues guitar, Pittsburgh Pennsylvania (My birthplace), Reggio Emilia, Italy (My ancestral home), Las Vegas, Nevada (My Mecca), One wife, two kids, one dog, two cats

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  1. Pliny the Elder, in his The Natural History, discusses emeralds in his chapter on smaragdus [emeralds], the Latin term for the green stone. Pliny mentions Egypt being the site for their mines http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.02.0137%3Abook%3D37%3Achapter%3D16 Now we have evidence of an actual beryl mines in Egypt. Well-known beryl minerals include emeralds and aquamarine. https://www.ancientpages.com/2021/04/16/emerald-production-in-eastern-desert-of-roman-egypt-new-evidence/ Summary: This is an interesting use of archaeologic evidence to confirm the ancient literature. Interestingly enough, Pliny the Elder has this to say about Nero's use of emeralds: guy also known as gaius
  2. I guess this wasn't too surprising: https://www.examinerlive.co.uk/news/local-news/vandals-hit-rare-roman-luxury-20400516 Here's the original thread:
  3. Thanks, again, for the video. Suetonius, writing (AD 121) more than a century after Caesar's death, gave this description: Nice article on Caesar's appearance: https://www.knowledgesnacks.com/articles/was-julius-caesar-handsome/ Here's the image of Caesar many of us have (from the HBO movie "Rome"):
  4. Stolen statue found: https://www.cnn.com/style/article/italy-art-statue-stolen-intl-scli/index.html Summary: It is good to see that the looted statue will be returned to its rightful place. guy also known as gaius
  5. Thank you, Crispina. Although the eye coloring seems possibly too light, they are fabulous pictures. Those "come-to-life" images are absolutely breathless. Thank, you, again.
  6. Exciting find in Scarborough, England: https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-york-north-yorkshire-56745840 Summary: Nice video below. This part of the story was reassuring: guy also known as gaius
  7. guy

    Relax with the Roman Baths

    Thank you for reading my post. I think we forget that the Roman bath complex was really a combination of bath, spa, gym, library, community center, and food court. I would, therefore, expect the Roman bath complex to be a rowdy and crowded place. Seneca lived above a bath complex and had this to say in Moral Letters to Lucilius (56): https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Moral_letters_to_Lucilius/Letter_56
  8. Another exciting find: a city buried by sand. This site, the "Lost Golden City" is near Luxor, Egypt. It dates back to the reign of Amenhotep III who reigned from 1391-1353 BCE. It is amazing the amount of archaeological material found since the dig began in September 2020, including colored pottery, jewelry, scarab amulets, a bakery with ovens, etc. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-56686448 The city is believed to have been founded by Amenhotep III, one of ancient Egypt's most powerful rulers Summary: It is hard to believe that this city was around more than a thousand years before Cleopatra and Marc Anthony had their relationship. guy also known as gaius
  9. This is a recent discovery of a salt complex sheds light on the economy of Neolithic (later Stone Age) Britain almost 6000 years ago: https://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/archaeology/yorkshire-salt-archaeology-neolithic-britain-b1824440.html https://www.fr24news.com/a/2021/03/how-a-new-archaeological-find-in-yorkshire-could-rewrite-british-prehistory.html Summary: As I've written before in a previous post dealing with Mayan salt production, it is easy to forget today about the importance of salt in ancient times, from preserving food to seasoning. By being able to preserve the food, it removed the dependence on local production and allowed food transport over long distances. guy also known as gaius
  10. Here's a beautiful ancient Roman cameo of Augustus that came to my attention. Beautiful detail, for sure: Medallion on which the head of the Emperor Augustus stands out in high relief. Augustus, wearing the crown of oak leaf, is seen from the front, the bands falling from the occiput, and spreading over the flat forehead, towards the shoulders, the left of which is draped. In the eleven small holes distributed on the crown were perhaps fixed tassels or gold leaves. http://medaillesetantiques.bnf.fr/ws/catalogue/app/collection/record/ark:/12148/c33gbcvrx Summary: This piece, which is thought to be contemporary or near-contemporary with Augustus (reigned 23 BCE - 14 AD), helps to validate our image of him (or at least the image he wanted to portray). guy also known as gaius (Thanks to Garth Harney @Optimus Princeps for bringing this to my attention.
  11. The year 251 AD was a disaster for the Romans. The Gothic forces, under Cniva, defeated the Roman forces at the battle of Abritus in modern-day Bulgaria. Both the Emperor Decius and his co-ruling son Herennius Etruscus were killed in battle. Before the disastrous battle, Cniva besieged Philoppolis (Plovdiv, Bulgaria). One unfortunate resident left a hoard of coins for safety, never to return: http://archaeologyinbulgaria.com/2021/04/01/large-silver-coin-hoard-hidden-during-251-ad-goth-invasion-of-roman-empire-discovered-in-bulgarias-plovdiv/ Summary: This is another example of numismatic evidence sometimes filling the gaps of an incomplete history. The year 251 AD was certainly one of crisis. Not only were an emperor and his co-ruling son killed, but the Sassanid King Shapur I, possibly sensing instability in the empire, decided to wage war on Rome with the intend of capturing Antioch. Excellent review about the turmoil of the third century that led up to the Battle of Abritus: guy also known as gaius
  12. Although I'm a religious skeptic, this article from a religious source has some interesting insights: Also related is the Alexamenos graffito, thought to be an early depiction of Jesus (as a crucified donkey-headed figure): https://www.patheos.com/blogs/geneveith/2021/04/roman-drawings-of-crucifixions-and-what-they-tell-us/ Summary: I find it interesting that Alexamenos, the man who is mocked in the image, is dressed as a slave. This would be consistent with my hypotheses that the Jesus movement would have its greatest appeal to the least historically studied segments of society: the underclass, women , and slaves. The Jesus movement would not be initially embraced by the ruling elite. Modern historians of ancient Rome, whose source material would mostly deal with these elites, would underestimate the movement's pervasiveness throughout the lower and less powerful classes. The Jesus movement would also contrast with the Mystery Cults, which could be potentially more exclusionary both by gender and social position. guy also known as gaius
  13. Despite being conquered by the ancient Romans, the Basques were able to maintain some level of autonomy, both in culture and in government. They have remained unique also in language and genetics: https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2021-03/upf--toa032621.php Map showing the Basque region which includes northern Spain and south western France. Summary: I never appreciated the unique culture, language, and even genetics of the Basque people. Below is an interesting further explanation: https://erenow.net/common/the-basque-history-of-the-world/3.php#:~:text=The Romans sent in additional,defeated the Basques as well. guy also known as gaius
  14. guy

    Ancient Roman dolls

    These dolls found in tombs of young girls give some insight into the lives of a young elite female. https://daily.jstor.org/girls-and-dolls-in-the-roman-empire/ https://laughingsquid.com/an-ancient-roman-articulated-doll-found-in-the-sarcophagus-of-a-mummy-of-an-eight-year-old-girl/ Summary: A society will impart its culture and expectations to younger generations by formal education, but also thru game and play. guy also known as gaius