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About okamido

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  1. I didn't see this anywhere, so I thought I would share it. http://www.livescience.com/19729-female-gladiator-statue-rome.html
  2. Sorry that I couldn't provide the entire article from the magazine.
  3. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/germany/8853054/Lost-Roman-camp-that-protected-against-Germanic-hordes-found.html
  4. As reported by Plutarch, the first century Greek historian, Spartans were supposed to have submitted their newborn infants to members of the Gerousia for physical inspection. If found to be too small, too sickly, or even malformed, the Spartan elders would then throw the infant into the apothetae (pit), which was located at the base of Mt Taygetos. Unfortunately, there is no record of this in anything but the works of Plutarch, who only had the anectodal works of Sparta's enemies to work with. Recent research however has seemingly debunked this long-standing myth. Studies conducted by the Athen's Faculty of Medicine, in conjuction with Cambridge Universities, Center for Sparta, have located skeletal remains of 46 individuals. None of which however, are those of an infant. In fact, all of the remains that have been found are those of men in their lates teens to mid-thirties. Anthropologists and historians believe that the apothetae was a place of execution for traitors, criminals, and 'tremblers', but not infants. http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5hHzsLiMdT06yLSvTLMEozBFUC1sQ
  5. okamido

    Roman death customs?

    It is part of the Praeficae and the Cult of Nenia. The custom is actually much more violent than it was shown. The women performing the praeficae (wailing song), are supposed to beat their breast to produce blood with the milk, better to nourish the dead. This was most likely not shown because it would just go a little too far for modern sensibilities.
  6. okamido

    Xanthippus of Carthage

    First of all, thanks for a very good post on an interesting topic. I am curious, however, where these different outcomes have been proposed? Are they to be found in the ancient literature or in the works of modern scholars? Hi Klingan, As to the demise of Xanthippus at Lilybaeum, we have the reports of Diodorus(23.16). For his possible existence as a 'govenor' to Ptolemy III Euergetes, we must look to Jerome(Daniel XI.9) and for the most probable answer, one of him just sailing home, we have Polybius (I.36). In Polybius' account, he states that he has more information on Xanthippus that he would discuss at another time. I unfortunately have not come across it, if it exists, and would be interested to discover which of the other outcomes he might possibly corroborate.
  7. okamido

    Xanthippus of Carthage

    You are correct, Nero did attempt something quite similar with his mother. To the 'demise' of Xanthippus, I don't see the real point in dealing him out in that manner, but I suppose that some could have had enough emnity towards him to enact that ploy. The romantic in me would like to believe that he received his Egyptian reward, but the realist thinks it was more likely a lonely death on a battlefield somewhere.
  8. When the Hebrews left Egypt, they did so with a military wing that won some good victories all the way to Jericho and then beyond. Is it possible that when Joseph settled his brothers in Egypt he did it not only to help them, as the Bible says, but to allow them to bring their clans in to form a buffer "zone" between Egypt proper and whomever was troubling them at the time in Canaan, be it Assyria, Hittite, whomever? Could they later, after having become to strong, been put to labor in order to keep a scenario from forming, such as the Mexica and the Tapanecs in what is now Mexico...a subordinate mercenary force suddenly overthrowing the kingdom?
  9. okamido

    Carthaginian Sacrifices

    Apologies that I didn't see this being discussed, just a few threads down. My posed question at the end of the o/p is still valid, if anyone wants to comment.
  10. okamido

    Carthaginian Sacrifices

    In times of great stress, Carthaginian nobles would were said to sacrifice a child to fire in the name of the god Ba'al Hammon. Seeing as Carthage was a Phonecian colony, it is certainly plausible. Equally possible is the simple fact that it was all Roman propaganda to make their Mediterranean rival look barbaric. Another thought however, is perhaps the nobles each sacrificed a child to ensure that each member of the upper-class was "sacrificing" equally, so to speak. In a city without a king(I believe?), and only highly successful ruling families, is that simple theory one that should be considered?
  11. okamido

    Minoan Cannabalism?

    In the basement of the archaeological site of Anemospilia, on the Isle of Crete, there was found the skeletal remains of 327 children. The bones were found scattered in a way that suggest simple discardment but upon examination show clear evidence of having been flayed. On the surface floors several skeletons in rubble suggest they were killed by an earthquake, however, on the alter is a skeleton, determined to be an 18 year-old maled who was so compacted that anthropologist determine he was trussed like a bull for sacrife. Examination of the bones and there discoloration also suggest that he died from blood-loss, with his killers dying moments later by the ensuing earthquake. Did these sacrifices, coupled with the bull-worship in Minoan culture actually give rise to the Myth of the Minotaur, and was this myth a possible first use of propoganda by mainland Greek city-states against the much older and established island nation of Crete?
  12. Xanthippus of Carthage -"Just about this time there arrived at Carthage one of the recruiting-officers they had formerly dispatched to Greece, bringing a considerable number of soldiers and among them a certain Xanthippus of Lacedaemon, a man who had been brought up in the Spartan discipline, and had had a fair amount of military experience" (Polybius, 1.32.1). -"the Carthaginians, considering that their misfortunes were due to bad generalship, asked the Lacedaemonians to send them a commander. The Lacedaemonians sent them Xanthippus." (Appian, 3.2). -"... various allies came to the Carthaginians, among them Xanthippus from Sparta. This man assumed absolute authority over the Carthaginians, since the populace was eager to entrust matters to his charge and Hamilcar together with the other officials stepped aside voluntarily" (Zonaras, 8.13). Xanthippus is a man very little is known about. Recruited in Sparta by Carthaginian handlers in their quest to find aid against the Romans in the First Punic War, Xanthippus led a contingent of 500 Greek mercenaries to the far off lands. Upon arrival, Xanthippus was given complete control over all mercenary forces in the employ of Carthage, as well as the reduced and suffering Carthaginian war machine when battle with the Roman Consul, Marcus Atilius Regulus, seemed inevitable. Quickly noticing that the Carthaginians were not utilizing their cavalry and elephants properly due to a fear of open ground and the Roman foot soldier, Xanthippus quickly retrained and reorganized the way that each of these potentially devastating aspects of Carthage's military would be deployed. In addition, Xanthippus levied more citizen soldiers and ordered them trained in the current style of Greek phalanxes, and prepared them for the frontal assualt. His retraining and reorganizing of the soldiers under his command had them screaming to be led against the Romans, full of confidence in themselves and in their commander. According to Polybius, Regulus was coming to be agitated that another may soon be sent from Rome, and the glory of ending this conflict would fall to him. He was spoiling for a fight, that would soon be his. He would get his fight as Xanthippus marched his men into the open ground they so used to fear. The two forces lined up, and at the end of the day, Regulus was a prisoner of Xanthippus, and the Roman army was wiped out. For five years Regulus remained a "guest" of Carthage till he was paroled on the condition that he would seek peace in the Roman Senate. Upon his arrival to Rome, he denounced his parole and beseeched the Senate to continue fighting. Defeated yet honorable, Regulus was returned to Carthage to face his fate, execution by torture. Xanthippus on the other hand went on to a second victory for Carthage. Deploying to Lilybaeum, which was under siege by the Romans, Xanthippus led them in battle breaking the siege and scattering the Roman forces. From this point the fate of Xanthippus becomes murky. One of possibly three outcomes have been reported for him. The first, he simply returned to Greece, waiting for further conflict, and further payment. The second, he was sent home by jealous members of the citizenry of Lilybaeum, on a sabotaged vessel which sank, killing all aboard including Xanthippus. The third, and the one I would like to think was true, especially after his performance against Rome, was that he lived out his days as a Govenor for Ptolemy III Euergetes in a newly obtained province. Some friends of mine have postulated that perhaps Xanthippus never truly existed. The idea is that since the primary source of his accomplishments comes from Polybius, a pro-Roman Greek, he may have been fabricated to cover the idea of a loss to Carthage. Any thoughts?
  13. Hello Viggen. An associate of mine attempted to register for the forum, but the registration screen asks for an answer to the challenge question without a spot to put a question. Because of this, he cannot complete his registration. Could you advise?

  14. okamido

    Five Spartan Villages

    One obai of Sparta that was not mentioned, was Neopolitae. This obai was created by Cleomenes III, in order to incorporate the newly enfranchised Spartiates due to his reforms. This brought the number to six until Amyclae gained a form of independence in the first century bce.