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Guest Darkazngettoboi

Can Anyone Tell Me About The 1st Triumvirate?

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Guest Darkazngettoboi

I really need to know about them, my topic is on the 1st triumvirate...and we are reading a book in class about Julius caesar. I need to do a research paper on it. So can anyone tell me anything?

 

Thanks.

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The first triumvirate was a coalition between Gaius Julius Caesar, Gnaeus Pompeius and Crassus. It was created as a counter to the senate group of the boni, which were against anything that changed the republic. Look up the part of the roman empire that talks about it. It pretty much made it possible for caesar to stay in Gaul and bring them under Roman influence. After Crassus's death in Parthia, Pompey and Caesar stayed allied because of Pompey being married to Caesar's daughter. after Caesars daughter died, the Boni went to Pompey to try to pull him away from Caesar so they could prosecute him after he returned.

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Triumvirate - a commission of three men appointed or dedicated to the completion of a specific task. Singular - triumvir (Pompeius, Crassus and Caesar made up the First Triumvirate. Caesar, as one of the members, would have been a triumvir.)

The first triumvirate was made up of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great), Marcus Licinius Crassus and Gaius Julius Caesar. Pompeius was the leading man in Rome at the time, Crassus the richest, and Caesar an up and comer who had winner written all over him, but was massively in debt.

In 60 B.C these three Roman statesmen found they had a problem. They wanted stuff that their enemies in the senate were not inclined to give them for various reasons.

Pompey wanted land for his veteran soldiers as reward for their services to him and Rome, and also wanted his proposed eastern colonies to be ratified. The colonies by their presence were to help 'romanize' Pontus and the territories of Mithridates, whom he had recently conquered.

Crassus wanted compensation for businessmen (also known as 'the knights' or 'equestrians' or the 'ordo equester' or 'publicani' ) whose interests and businesses ( and more importantly, their profits ) had been damaged by the war in the east against Mithridates.

Caesar wanted to be able to stand for consul without having to be in Rome in person ( 'in absentia' ) and he also wanted a Triumph for his various victories in Spain over the Spanish Lusitani and Calleici tribes in 61 BC.

For the three men to succeed, they knew that they would have to have a consul in power in 59 B.C who would help them get what they wanted, and combat any opposition in the senate to them. This partnership of the three men would become known by modern historians as 'The First Triumvirate'. It was sealed by Pompey's marriage to Caesar's daughter in April '59.

So, by wielding their massive combined influence to swing the voters, G. Julius Caesar was made consul for 59. B.C. Pompey and Crassus got their wishes.

Caesar had laws passed granting Pompey's veterans their land, and eventually had Pompeys settlements in the East ratified.

Crassus and the publicani got their wish in the form a massive bribe. The publicani, and therefore Crassus, stood to lose money in the east because they had overestimated the amount of taxes they could collect from Asia; so Caesar cut the contracts by a third therefore ensuring that there would still be a massive profit for Crassus and his clients.

Caesar, although becoming consul, relinquished his right to triumph, because he knew that there would be bigger and better conquests to celebrate later in his career.

It is common knowledge that Crassus and Pompey did not like each other, but had enough political nous to realise that they could not succeed on their own. Caesar acted as the go between. He knew that he would be a shoe in for consul and therefore be in an invaluable position to help the other two men achieve their ends, and have their their clout ( Pompey's soldiers and popularity ) and cash ( Crassus' billions ) to help him get what he wanted.

Although they got what they wanted, the Triumvirs were now hated in Romans and Italians for their domination of politics, and their willingness to use force to see their measures passed. ( Pompey had bought soldiers into Rome to help see his legislation through, just in case Caesar's silver tongue was not enough ).

At the end of 59 B.C, Caesar went to Gaul ( France ) where he would end up fighting for the next nine years, and also establish his reputation as the greatest Roman of them all.

Without Caesar as a go between, relations between Pompey and Crassus became strained to the point where the Triumvirs had to have a sit down in Luca, in the year of 56 B.C, to try and bring the Triumvirate back to a single accord.

To this end, it was decided that Pompey and Crassus would be consuls in 55 B.C, and thereafter receive commads in Syria ( Crassus ) and Spain ( Pompey ). Caesar would receive a five year extension to his command in Gaul.

This was achieved and in 54 B.C Crassus left for Syria while Pompey stayed in Rome and governed Spain through his legates.

During a riot in Rome, Pompey was standing near a man who was killed, and got drenched in his blood. He changed into a clean toga, and sent the bloody one home. His wife, Julia, ( Caesars daughter ) on seeing the bloody toga assumed that her husband had been killed. She fainted, suffered a miscarriage ( she was pregnant ) and died. Her death cut the familial bond between her father and Pompey.

Then, in 53 B.C, Crassus was killed while on campaing in Parthia.

This effectively ended the First Triumvirate.

 

hope this helps, good luck with the project.

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Who sanctioned the Triumvirate? Did the three just meet somewhere and decide this? Did they march into the senate and said, this is the way it is going to be and that is it?

Thanks for the info, I have been thinking about the triumvirate for the last couple of days.

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Not that I mean to stifle discussion, but the original post here was from over 3 years ago. :lol: However...

 

Who sanctioned the Triumvirate? Did the three just meet somewhere and decide this? Did they march into the senate and said, this is the way it is going to be and that is it?

Thanks for the info, I have been thinking about the triumvirate for the last couple of days.

 

Though much more involved than suggested, yes, Pompeius, Crassus and Caesar for all intensive purposes, virtually announced to the Senate they were in charge by virtue of controlling the key components of the Roman political system. There was still considerable opposition of course, and that opposition had a voice (M. Porcius Cato in particular), but little real power. The "triumvirate" (so-called only in retrospect as it was not an official designation of government or authority) controlled the tribunate (and therefore the power to legislate) through support of the urban populace, held significant support of the army via Pompey and had access to massive wealth and the support of the Equites via Crassus.

 

Additionally, even after Caesar had left Rome for Gaul, the scheming of Clodius managed to manipulate the senate into sending Cato to govern Cyprus (and exiled Cicero, but Cicero could hardly be recognized as a great opponent to the triumvirs and in fact supported them in some legislation/activity).

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Not that I mean to stifle discussion, but the original post here was from over 3 years ago. :huh: However...

 

Who sanctioned the Triumvirate? Did the three just meet somewhere and decide this? Did they march into the senate and said, this is the way it is going to be and that is it?

Thanks for the info, I have been thinking about the triumvirate for the last couple of days.

 

Though much more involved than suggested, yes, Pompeius, Crassus and Caesar for all intensive purposes, virtually announced to the Senate they were in charge by virtue of controlling the key components of the Roman political system. There was still considerable opposition of course, and that opposition had a voice (M. Porcius Cato in particular), but little real power. The "triumvirate" (so-called only in retrospect as it was not an official designation of government or authority) controlled the tribunate (and therefore the power to legislate) through support of the urban populace, held significant support of the army via Pompey and had access to massive wealth and the support of the Equites via Crassus.

 

Additionally, even after Caesar had left Rome for Gaul, the scheming of Clodius managed to manipulate the senate into sending Cato to govern Cyprus (and exiled Cicero, but Cicero could hardly be recognized as a great opponent to the triumvirs and in fact supported them in some legislation/activity).

Thanks for the info, being I am still an infant, I do go back and try to read as many posts as I can. I don't look at the date, I just look at the subject. Are there more up to date ways of looking for certain topics? Sometimes, I just happen apon one and just start writing questions. Thanks again!

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Not that I mean to stifle discussion, but the original post here was from over 3 years ago. :clapping: However...

 

Who sanctioned the Triumvirate? Did the three just meet somewhere and decide this? Did they march into the senate and said, this is the way it is going to be and that is it?

Thanks for the info, I have been thinking about the triumvirate for the last couple of days.

 

Though much more involved than suggested, yes, Pompeius, Crassus and Caesar for all intensive purposes, virtually announced to the Senate they were in charge by virtue of controlling the key components of the Roman political system. There was still considerable opposition of course, and that opposition had a voice (M. Porcius Cato in particular), but little real power. The "triumvirate" (so-called only in retrospect as it was not an official designation of government or authority) controlled the tribunate (and therefore the power to legislate) through support of the urban populace, held significant support of the army via Pompey and had access to massive wealth and the support of the Equites via Crassus.

 

Additionally, even after Caesar had left Rome for Gaul, the scheming of Clodius managed to manipulate the senate into sending Cato to govern Cyprus (and exiled Cicero, but Cicero could hardly be recognized as a great opponent to the triumvirs and in fact supported them in some legislation/activity).

Thanks for the info, being I am still an infant, I do go back and try to read as many posts as I can. I don't look at the date, I just look at the subject. Are there more up to date ways of looking for certain topics? Sometimes, I just happen apon one and just start writing questions. Thanks again!

 

I think you just have to look and pay attention. I was looking for some kind of filter, but there isn't one.

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Who sanctioned the Triumvirate? Did the three just meet somewhere and decide this? Did they march into the senate and said, this is the way it is going to be and that is it?

Thanks for the info, I have been thinking about the triumvirate for the last couple of days.

 

The 1st triumvirate started off as a private agreement without any sanction. It was a secret alliance at first unlike it's successor the 2nd triumvirate and came to light only later when the members had to gain approval for passing laws concerning settling Pompey's veteran's.

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Not that I mean to stifle discussion, but the original post here was from over 3 years ago. :furious:

Then, it was history, PP.

 

It's true; History tends to repeat itself.

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