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dnewhous

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  1. This designation is used for any candidate who is placed on the ballot when the United States can't find someone from a major political party. It is evidence of voter fraud. I didn't think too much of it until I bumped into it again by starting the Honor Harrington series. The space station is more like something out of Duke Nukem than anything else. In this story they talk about using NPA space marines to take over the station.
  2. dnewhous

    Etruria

    After reading Britannica there are two salient facts about the Etruscans that are think are important. One, they referred to the country they are in as "Etruria." I've seen the word before on a map of the Roman Republic in the Oxford History of the Roman World. I didn't know if it was the name the Etruscans used themselves or just what a historian called their territory. It's about the size of a European Duchy. Second, their original city in Italy is called "Villanova." These facts are not covered in Herodotus's The Histories.
  3. The third Inochina war is between China and Vietnam. "Since the border war of February-March 1979, there have been negotiations held at irregular intervals between China and Vietnam. These negotiations have been held in part to discuss the border problems. But there has been no sign of progress in this area. Despite pledges of entering the talks with good intentions by both sides, neither government has made significant efforts to get beyond name calling and symbolic attempts to settle the issues." Hood, Steven J.. Dragons Entangled: Indochina and the China-Vietnam War (p. 117). Taylor and Francis. Kindle Edition. That's the very beginning of the book. Now let's get back to the 0th Indochina war, that is WWII. WWII started On December 8, 1941, the United States Congress declared war (Pub.L. 77–328, 55 Stat. 795) on the Empire of Japan in response to that country's surprise attack on Pearl Harbor the prior day. It was formulated an hour after the Infamy Speech of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Now for the lead up to the war: Britannica: When Japanese troops entered northern Indochina in September 1940 (in pursuance of an agreement extorted in August from the Vichy government of France), the United States uttered a protest. Germany and Italy, by contrast, recognized Japan as the leading power in the Far East by concluding with it the Tripartite, or Axis, Pact of September 27, 1940: negotiated by Japanese foreign minister Matsuoka Yosuke, the pact pledged its signatories to come to one another’s help in the event of an attack “by a power not already engaged in war.” Japan also concluded a neutrality pact with the U.S.S.R. on April 13, 1941. Aha! Notice, when this happened, the United States entered a protest. That's the watershed event. But, FDR limited the American response to Japan’s aggressive moves to extension of another $50 million credit line to China. He ratcheted up pressure on Japan by adding scrap steel and iron,vital to Japanese industrial production, to his list of embargoed exports. Wortman, Marc. 1941: Fighting the Shadow War: A Divided America in a World at War (pp. 120-121). Grove Atlantic. Kindle Edition. I didn't realize we already had an embargo at that point. After the Japanese invaded southern French Indochina in July, the United States cut off oil exports to Japan. With the conflict in China rapidly consuming Japan’s already scarce resources and the trade embargo imposed on the country only tightening, Tokyo was determined to expand deeper into Southeast Asia to secure new sources of oil and other war-making materials. Kupchan, Charles A.. Isolationism (p. 286). Oxford University Press. Kindle Edition. More specifically, from Britannica On July 2, 1941, the Imperial Conference decided to press the Japanese advance southward even at the risk of war with Great Britain and the United States; and this policy was pursued even when Matsuoka was relieved of office a fortnight later. On July 26, in pursuance of a new agreement with Vichy France, Japanese forces began to occupy bases in southern Indochina. Some more Britannica, This time the United States reacted vigorously, not only freezing Japanese assets under U.S. control but also imposing an embargo on supplies of oil to Japan. Dismay at the embargo drove the Japanese naval command, which had hitherto been more moderate than the army, into collusion with the army’s extremism. When negotiations with the Dutch of Indonesia for an alternative supply of oil produced no satisfaction, the Imperial Conference on September 6, at the high command’s insistence, decided that war must be undertaken against the United States and Great Britain unless an understanding with the United States could be reached in a few weeks’ time. That lead up to the war is awful exciting. I should really interject something here about the end of World War II. From the wikipedia Victory over Japan Day (also known as V-J Day, Victory in the Pacific Day, or V-P Day[1]) is the day on which Imperial Japan surrendered in World War II, in effect bringing the war to an end. The term has been applied to both of the days on which the initial announcement of Japan's surrender was made – August 15, 1945, in Japan, and because of time zone differences, August 14, 1945 (when it was announced in the United States and the rest of the Americas and Eastern Pacific Islands) – as well as to September 2, 1945, when the surrender document was signed, officially ending World War II. From Brittanica, Truman designated MacArthur as the Allied powers’ supreme commander to accept Japan’s formal surrender, which was solemnized aboard the U.S. flagship Missouri in Tokyo Bay: the Japanese foreign minister, Shigemitsu Mamoru, signed the document first, on behalf of the Emperor and his government. He was followed by General Umezu Yoshijiro on behalf of the Imperial General Headquarters. The document was then signed by MacArthur, Nimitz, and representatives of the other Allied powers. Japan concluded a separate surrender ceremony with China in Nanking on September 9, 1945. With this last formal surrender, World War II came to an end. I find the separate peace with China puzzling because if you watch the video, a Chinese general does sign the document. It's worth noticing that Japan surrenders to several countries in that video including the Netherlands. I think this document was a basis for SEATO. The country obviously left out of the alliance: China. Victory over Japan led to the First Indochina War which ended in the battle of Dien Bien Phu. The First Indochina War (generally known as the Indochina War in France, and as the Anti-French Resistance War in Vietnam) began in French Indochina on December 19, 1946, and lasted until July 20, 1954. Fighting between French forces and their Việt Minh opponents in the south dated from September 1945. The conflict pitted a range of forces, including the French Union's French Far East Expeditionary Corps, led by France and supported by Bảo Đại's Vietnamese National Army against the Việt Minh,[30] led by Hồ Chí Minh[31] and the People's Army of Vietnam led by Võ Nguyên Giáp.[32] Most of the fighting took place in Tonkin in northern Vietnam,[33] although the conflict engulfed the entire country and also extended into the neighboring French Indochina protectorates of Laos and Cambodia. From the footage it looked like the French capitulated rather than surrendered. There is footage of a British CH-47F performing a rescue operation. [youtube] Victory at Dien Bien Phu - YouTube [/youtube] It's worth pointing out that the first Indochina war was fought in the north and won by the communists. Then American got involved. And the first thing we tried was an election. This information is not available on the wikipedia or Britannica any longer, but in 1954 the United States held a 3 way race for president of South Vietnam, the contenders were Ngo Dinh Diem, Bo Dai, and Ho Chi Minh. There was widespread accusations of voter fraud. The result was the Second Indochina War. The Vietnam War (Vietnamese: Chi?n tranh Vi?t Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War,[56] and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Vietnamese: Kháng chi?n ch?ng M?) or simply the American War, was a conflict in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955[A 1] to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.[10] Some other postulated starting dates for the Vietnam War are the assassination of president Diem 2 November 1963, the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution August 7, 1964 and the arrival of a marine expeditionary force in March 3, 1965. It's worth pointing out that the second Indochina war was fought in the south, and once again won by the communists. If you want to get particular about it you could say WWII wasn't finished until the legal status of Germany (a searchable topic on the wikipedia) was settled The Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany (German: Vertrag über die abschließende Regelung in Bezug auf Deutschland[a]), or the Two Plus Four Agreement (German: Zwei-plus-Vier-Vertrag; short: German Treaty), was negotiated in 1990 between the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic (the eponymous Two), and the Four Powers which occupied Germany at the end of World War II in Europe: France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States. World War II was a victory for NATO. Vietnam was not a victory for SEATO. The allied casualties for the second Indochina War look rather dreadful on the wikipedia. And they don't even include the UK or France.
  4. I think the historical analog for Le Roi is the good king Chlodio, and that for Johan it is Merovech. I thought I saw mentioned a legendary castle and a forest on the wikipedia. I will check back someday maybe and fill in more. Maybe try the Johan and Peewit comic books. K, the fort is called Dispargum, and what I think is supposed to be a forest is called Thuringia. This puts a lie to the movie (which takes place before the TV series) being set in the middle ages. It's more like after the fall of Rome and before the complete breaking of the Pax Romana. Pardon, that is a misuse of the phrase "Pax Romana." Before all hell broke loose? I rewatched the movie, I found the dialog from Peewit "But you sire?" and when I heard that I thought it was the name of the king in French. They've updated Britannica enough now to indicate that Merovich is the father of Childeric I who is the father of Clovis I. That is the beginning of the Merovingian Dynasty. Oddly, there's an episode guide to the Smurf's on the wikipedia that lists 9 seasons. It has been overhauled. It appears to have more of a narrative flow than the 16 seasons available for free with a subscription to Boomerang on Amazon. I honestly wish I could compare, especially the early episodes. The Boomerang episodes appear too short for American broadcast, and are definitely not the originals. The episode Vanity Fair is not the original first episode. It is a remake of an episode that originally aired before King Smurf. The spelling f-a-r-e is odd. That's a synonym for "fee." Shouldn't it be fair as in "Scarborough Fair?" or Vanity Fair the magazine? By way of comparison, Fraggle Rock costs more to rent and has DVD and Blu-ray collections.
  5. dnewhous

    Historical Historians

    🙂 Isn't there an old Roman ethic that historians should stick to res publica or something like that? Plutarch - Parallel Lives. First Century. Greece of late antiquity during the Pax Romana. The height of the power of the Roman empire. Plutarch is wiki'd as a biographer (Britannica as well) rather than a historian. Originally written in Koine Greek. Dio Cassius - The Roman History: The Reign of Augustus. Originally written in Latin. Peter Brown - the World of Late Antiquity. I didn't know about this one until I wiki'd late antiquity not knowing exactly what it referred to. He is a modern historian exploring what we call the Dark Ages. Originally in English. Eric H Cline - 1177 BC the year civilization collapsed - an exclamation point to the end of Mycenean Greece. I didn't think we'd ever know exactly when it came to an end, but why not? That would be the end of what most people consider the ancient world. Originally in English. Procopius - The Secret History The story of Justinian's reign. Originally in Koine Greek. Ian Wood - the Merovingian Kings - covers neither Clovis I nor Charlemagne, so it's not that interesting. It's really missing Merovich, Childeric I, Clovis I, the book as is, Charlemagne, Louis the Pious, and his 3 sons. That puts the timeline from the namesake of the line through the end of the Carolingian Empire, in 816, as seen by the Catholic church. Originally in English Geoffrey of Monmouth - The History of the Kings of Britain - AFAIK this is the original story of king Arthur included. Written in the 12th century, in Welsh. It appears he is an Angle? He is fighting the Saxons in Britain. There's no Excalibur or anything really exciting. As an added bonus, I'd like to provide the definition of history from the Encyclopedia Britannica: History, the discipline that studies the chronological record of events (as affecting a nation or people), based on a critical examination of source materials and usually presenting an explanation of their causes.
  6. This movie picks up quite a bit at the end. It features Christians being eaten by lions, which is why I didn't like the empire when I was young. That's one of the first stories that I heard. What's the difference now? As saint Augustine wrote, Rome is the city of God. Anyways, this movie appears to reveal that Terpnos is the name of the devil in Roman mythology. The name pops up on the cast list when you watch it on Amazon. If the devil is Terpnos in Roman mythology, is it Typhon in Greek? That might be too easy. Typhon is the monster that fought Zeus in Greek mythology.
  7. dnewhous

    Historical Historians

    An excellent topic that it so much easier to discuss in the Kindle era. There are 3 historical historians, now 10, that I know about especially relevant to this forum. Edward Gibbon - The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. I found his name frequently when reading about current events when I was in highschool. Orignally in English. Saint Gregory of Tours - A History of the Franks. Disappointing. Modern material is better. Specifically, The Dark Ages and Clovis. Originally in Latin Seutonius - The Lives of the Twelve Caesars - this is a historical work as well and I have no idea when it was first published in English. It dates from the 2nd century. Originally in Latin Herodotus - The Histories. About ancient Greece before the fall of Athens in the Peloponnesian War. His name is very famous and I've known it since I was a child. His name appears in the game Civilization and its sequels along with several variations on it partly as a running gag that produces rankings in various metrics for each civilization as the game progresses. In fact, the running gag depends heavily on how well you do. If you do really well you'll get a list of civilizations written by Herodotus or say, Bill Clinton. If you do badly, you get something like Ryu-odotus. Originally in ancient Greek Herodotus does not claim that Etruscans came from Asia Minor. Thucyides - History of the Peloponnesian War. Originally in ancient Greek.
  8. dnewhous

    Downfall of Rome

    This is what the Dark Ages has to say about the fall of Gaul: By the second quarter of the fifth century the Franks were firmly established on the Scheldt and Meuse and lower Rhine, where the Roman garrisons never reappeared after the usurper Constantine had carried off the northern frontier legions to aid him in his attack on Italy (406). By this time, too, Colonia Agrippina, first of the great Roman cities of the Rhineland, seems to have already fallen into the hands of the Franks. Oman, Charles. The Dark Ages 476-918 A.D. (p. 39). Augustine Books. Kindle Edition. and this, not altogether unsupportive of Clovis's son, is what the Decline and Fall has to say The Thuringians served in the army of Attila: they traversed, both in their march and in their return, the territories of the Franks; and it was perhaps in this war that they exercised the cruelties, which, about fourscore years afterwards, were revenged by the son of Clovis. They massacred their hostages, as well as their captives: two hundred young maidens were tortured with exquisite and unrelenting rage; their bodies were torn asunder by wild horses, or their bones were crushed under the weight of rolling waggons; Gibbon, Edward. The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (Penguin Classics) (p. 430). Penguin Books Ltd. Kindle Edition. I don't have any good quotes from it, but another work about the downfall of Rome that is primarily a religious work is City of God by Saint Augustine.
  9. dnewhous

    Downfall of Rome

    I will point out that except for griping about Clovis's son, there isn't much in there about the European monarchies. Perhaps the most memorable quote is this "The story of its ruin is simple and obvious; and instead of inquiring why the Roman empire was destroyed, we should rather be surprised that it had subsisted so long. The victorious legions, who, in distant wars acquired the vices of strangers and mercenaries, first oppressed the freedom of the republic, and afterwards violated the majesty of the Purple. The emperors, anxious for their personal safety and the public peace, were reduced to the base expedient of corrupting the discipline which rendered them alike formidable to their sovereign and to the enemy; the vigour of the military government was relaxed, and finally dissolved, by the partial institutions of Constantine; and the Roman world was overwhelmed by a deluge of Barbarians." Gibbon, Edward. The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (Penguin Classics) (p. 449). Penguin Books Ltd. Kindle Edition. That quote is the most important quote from any historian ever, it is about the nature of the relationship between freedom and self defense.
  10. dnewhous

    Downfall of Rome

    The common answer to this is with a book, Edward Gibbon's The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.
  11. dnewhous

    Mausoleum of Theodoric

    Theodric is the guy who beat Clovis I. But this did not secure peace between the new kinsmen of Theodoric. In 499 Chlodovech fell on Gundobad, to strip him of his realm, routed him, and shut him up in Avignon, the southernmost of his strongholds; but after many successes the Frank lost all that he had gained, and turned instead to attack the king of the Visigoths. Theodoric strove unsuccessfully to prevent both wars, and was not a little displeased when, in 507, his brother-in-law Chlodovech overran southern Gaul, and slew his son-in-law Alaric in battle. Burgundian and Frank then united to destroy the Visigoths, and might have done so had not Theodoric intervened. The heir of the Visigothic throne was now Amalric, the son of Alaric and of the king of Italy’s daughter. To defend his grandson’s realm Theodoric declared war both on Chlodovech and on Gundobad, and sent his armies over the Alps to save the remnants of the Visigothic possessions in Gaul. One host crossed the Cottian Alps, and fell on Burgundy; another entered Provence, and smote the Frank and Burgundian besiegers of Aries. With his usual good fortune, Theodoric recovered all Gaul south of the Durance and the Cevennes (509), so that the conquests of Chlodovech were confined to Aquitaine. Oman, Charles. The Dark Ages 476-918 A.D. (pp. 20-21). Augustine Books. Kindle Edition.
  12. The French kingdom may not have started until the reign of Hugh Capet because that's when the Duchy of Franconia entered into the French kingdom. That's too late for a beginning of the middle ages. IIRC, I think the answer that I once put on a test and got right was the death of Childeric I, Clovis I father. Why that? Because that's when Clovis I started on the rampage. That would be 481 AD. I was graded on the event, not the year. I can see how history is hard is that the textbook was coy with that and it was kind of an educated guess. It does beg the question, why not his coronation? I can only suppose now that I didn't know his coronation as king of the Franks came later. I think I would have answered that if I'd known. K, the dark ages has this to say In the third quarter of the fifth century the most important of the Frankish chiefs of the Merovingian line was a prince of the Salians, named Childerich, who dwelt at Tournay, and ruled in the valley of the upper Scheldt. He died in 481, leaving his throne to his sixteen-year-old son and heir, a prince named Chlodovech or Chlodwig, who was destined to found the great Frankish kingdom, by extinguishing the other Frankish principalities, and conquering Oman, Charles. The Dark Ages 476-918 A.D. (p. 40). Augustine Books. Kindle Edition. So it looks like the original title of Clovis I was prince of the Salian Franks. I think there is a papal bull on the issue, but it's not available. K, I think the way to put it is that the start of the middle ages was a part of the liturgy, and I don't know if it still is. You are supposed to read back to the instructor your grade on your first history exam the start of your freshman year in highschool. Also, something like that is supposed to happen in the first grade. The home school books by Susan Wise Bauer are of little difference, 410 for the beginning of the middle ages, the printing press for the end. The National Geographic World history book implicitly chooses the death of Childeric I, saying that in 481 the Franks had a new king. The acknowledgements say the information comes from the Bettman Archive. Manoralism started during the empire and there's no reference to feudalism in medieval documents until after Hugh Capet, so I don't think anything epoch changing happened between Childeric's death and Clovis's coronation. "The term "feudal" or "feodal" is derived from the medieval Latin word feodum. The etymology of feodum is complex with multiple theories, some suggesting a Germanic origin (the most widely held view) and others suggesting an Arabic origin. Initially in medieval Latin European documents, a land grant in exchange for service was called a beneficium (Latin).[ 16] Later, the term feudum, or feodum, began to replace beneficium in the documents.[ 16] The first attested instance of this is from 984, although more primitive..." Wikipedia contributors. Focus On: Feudalism: Feudalism, Prince, Serfdom, Nobility, Lord, Peasant, Emirate, Charter, Manorialism, Motte-and-bailey Castle, etc. (Kindle Locations 177-184). Focus On. Kindle Edition. So basically feudalism started after the fall of the Carolingian Empire. Now what about Clovis I? Britannica, suprisingly enough, declares that Clovis I "While he was not the first Frankish king, he was the kingdom’s political and religious founder." But it also says Clovis I, (born c. 466—died November 27, 511, Paris, France), king of the Franks and ruler of much of Gaul from 481 to 511, a key period during the transformation of the Roman Empire into Europe. K, what I think this means is they are calling his father Childeric I the first king of the Franks. So I looked in the Dark Ages on Clovis I, summary "Conversion of Chlodovech, 496 — He conquers Aquitaine from the Visigoths, 507 — He unites all the Frankish Kingdoms, 511." Oman, Charles. The Dark Ages 476-918 A.D. (pp. 38-39). Augustine Books. Kindle Edition. But the wikipedia says, "Clovis executes the last pagan regulus. Clovis is declared the king of all the Franks" in 509. Murder most foul! From the wikipedia, "In 509, Clovis visited his old ally, Ragnachar in Cambrai. Following his conversion, many of his pagan retainers had defected to Ragnachar's side, making him a political threat. Ragnachar denied Clovis's entry, prompting Clovis to make a move against him. He bribed Ragnachar's retainers and soon, Ragnachar and his brother, Ricchar were captured and executed." Now, "In 509 (A.D.) he was elected king by the Ripuarians, and raised upon a shield in the city of Cologne, according to the Frankish custom, amid general acclamation. "And thus, said Gregory of Tours, " God daily prostrated his enemies before him and increased his kingdom, because he walked before him with an upright heart, and did what was pleasing in his eyes!" — so completely did his services to the Catholic Church conceal his moral deformities from the eyes of even the best of the ecclesiastical historians." Collection, .. Clovis . Editions Le Mono. Kindle Edition. Curiously, IIRC, the title of the French king in the 100 years war is "Prince de Paris." Currently, it is the name of a restaurant in Casablanca. Did Clovis have control of Paris? With a closer reading of the wikipedia, "Clovis I united all the Frankish petty kingdoms as well as most of Roman Gaul under his rule, conquering the Domain of Soissons of the Roman general Syagrius as well as the Visigothic Kingdom of Toulouse. He took his seat at Paris, which along with Soissons, Reims, Metz, and Orléans became the chief residences. Upon his death, the kingdom was split among his four sons." So, yes he did have control of Paris. The discrepancy in whether or not Clovis I was king of the Franks might also be explained with better maps. If you search "Gaul" on the wikipedia there is a pre-Roman map of Gaul that shows Aquitaine as being quite large. Modern Aquitaine is small. According to the wikipedia, "Aquitaine passed to France in 1137 when the duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine married Louis VII of France, but their marriage was annulled in 1152." As I might point out, if the Duchy of Aquitaine is not sworn to the French king, it must be sworn to the emperor. Note, in the books Dark Ages and History of France when it refers to the emperor it means the eastern, Byzantine emperor. On to the origin of the Basilica of Saint-Denis: "Dagobert I who, as every French schoolboy knows, put on his trousers inside out.* But he also did a good deal more. In 630 or thereabouts he annexed Alsace, the Vosges and the Ardennes, creating a new duchy, and he made Paris his capital. Though his debaucheries were famous – hence the perfectly idiotic little song – he was deeply religious and founded the Basilica of Saint-Denis, in which he was the first French king to be buried." Norwich, John Julius. A History of France (p. 30). Grove Atlantic. Kindle Edition. According to the wikipedia "The Basilica of Saint-Denis (French: Basilique royale de Saint-Denis, or simply Basilique Saint-Denis) is a large medieval abbey church in the city of Saint-Denis, now a northern suburb of Paris. The building is of singular importance historically and architecturally as its choir, completed in 1144, shows the first use of all of the elements of Gothic architecture.[citation needed] "The site originated as a Gallo-Roman cemetery in late Roman times. The archaeological remains still lie beneath the cathedral; the people buried there seem to have had a faith that was a mix of Christian and pre-Christian beliefs and practices.[1] Around 475 St. Genevieve purchased some land and built Saint-Denys de la Chapelle. In 636 on the orders of Dagobert I the relics of Saint Denis, a patron saint of France, were reinterred in the basilica. The relics of St-Denis, which had been transferred to the parish church of the town in 1795, were brought back again to the abbey in 1819." However, if you take a standpoint that the king of the Franks needs to take the throne (and the title with it), after they have united the Franks, then the first king of the Franks might be Theuderic III. From the wikipedia, "Theuderic III was recognized as king of all the Franks in 679. From then on, the kingdom of the Franks can be treated as a unit again for all but a very brief period of civil war." Clovis I remains important as the first man of that lineage that was baptized. His tomb is also at the Basilica of Saint-Denis. The way to tell for sure what his title is, is to go to his tomb and look at the engraving, which should be in Latin. "Rex du ..." I suppose. As to king of the Franks, the first French king in Paris to have control of the Duchy of Franconia is Hugh Capet. That's well after Charlemagne. Clovis grandfather Merovich fought with the empire against Attila the Hun. There is a book called the Merovingian kingdoms and I don't see didley. A History of the Franks doesn't have anything either.
  13. Was Dorian Greek anything like Mycenaean or Macedonian?
  14. dnewhous

    The Mob Rules

    legerdomain means the debtors of society and lenderdomain means the creditors of society
  15. dnewhous

    The Mob Rules

    persona non grata in Latin mean the person shall not be pleasing
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