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Roman Numerals

The history of Roman numerals and Roman mathematics isn't well documented. As humans likely began counting by using the simplest things available, the fingers, mathematics developed in a base unit of 10. Actively involved in trade and the use of monetary units, the Romans required a system where counting was more than fingers. The development of the numeric symbols may have been closely related, originally, to the shape of the hand: I for a single finger, V for the whole hand outstretched, X for both hands in the same manner.

Aside from the lack of the "zero" unit in the Roman system, the modern system and the ancient are remarkably similar. Considering that the Romans spread their culture throughout the western world, it really isn't a surprise that many numerical terms have a basis in Latin.

Note: Roman numbers which are multiples of 1,000 are indicated with a line ABOVE the number.

Roman Numeral Chart

Arabic or Modern

Latin or Roman

Digit Form

Ordinal Form

.

.

example - 1, 2, 3, 4...

example - first, second, third, fourth

1

I

unus - una - unum

primus

2

II

duo - duae - duo

secundas

3

III

tres - tria

tertius

4

IV

quattuor

quartus

5

V

quinque

quintus

6

VI

sex

sextus

7

VII

septem

septimus

8

VIII

octo

octavus

9

IX

novem

nonus

10

X

decum

decimus

11

XI

undecim

undecimus

12

XII

duodecim

duodecimus

13

XIII

tredecim

tertius decimus

14

XIV

quattourdecim

quartus decimus

15

XV

quindecim

quintus decimus

16

XVI

sedecim

sextus decimus

17

XVII

septendecim

septimus decimus

18

XVIII

duodeviginti

duodevicesimus

19

XIX

undeviginti

undevicesimus

20

XX

viginti

vicesimus

21

XXI

viginti unus

vicesimus primus

22

XXII

viginti duo

vicesimus secundas

23

XXIII

viginti tria

vicesimus tertius

24

XXIV

viginti quattuor

vicesimus quartus

25

XXV

viginti quinque

vicesimus quintus

30

XXX

triginta

tricesimus

40

XL

quadraginta

quadragesimus

50

L

quinquaginta

quinquagesimus

60

LX

sexaginta

sexagesimus

70

LXX

septuaginta

septuagesimus

80

LXXX

octoginta

octogesimus

90

XC

nonaginta

nonagesimus

100

C

centum

centesimus

200

CC

ducenti

ducentesimus

300

CCC

trecenti

trecentesimus

400

CD

quadringenti

quadringentesimus

500

D

quingenti

quingentesimus

600

DC

sescengenti

sescentesimus

700

DCC

septingenti

septingentesimus

753

DCCLIII

sepingenti quinquaginta tria

Founding Year of Rome - April 21, 753 BC

800

DCCC

octingenti

octingentesimus

900

CM

nongenti

nongentesimus

1000

M

mille

millesimus

1900

MCM

mille nongenti

millesnongentesimus

2000

MM

duomilia

bismillesimus

2100

MMC

duomilia centum

bismilles centesimus

3000

MMM

tresmilia

tresmillesimus

4000

MMMM

quadramilia

quadramillesimus

5000

V

quinmilia

quinmillesimus

6000

VM

sesmilia

sesmillesimus

7000

VMM

septuamilia

septuamillesimus

8000

VMMM

octomilia

octomillesimus

9000

MX

nonamilia

nonamillesimus

10,000

X

decem milia

decies millesimus

11,000

XM

undecim milia

undecim millesimus

12,000

XMM

duodecim milia

duadecim millesimus

50,000

L

quinqua milia

quinqua millesimus

60,000

LX

sexa milia

sexa millesimus

80,000

LXXX

octo milia

octo millesimus

90,099

XCXCIX

nona milis novaginta novem

nona millesimus nonus

100,000

C

centum milia

centies millesimus

200,000

CC

ducenta milia

ducenta millesimus

200,100

CCC

ducenta milia centum

ducenta millesimus centum

200,510

CCDX

ducenta milia quindecem

quindecem

500,000

D

quingenti milia

quingenti millesimus

600,000

DC

sescenti milia

sescenti millesimus

700,000

DCC

sepusducenta milia

sepcenti millesimus

1,000,000

M

mille milia

mille millesimus



Did you know?

The first evidence of zero is from the Sumerian culture in Mesopotamia, some 5,000 years ago. The symbol changed over time as positional notation, for which zero was crucial, made its way to the Babylonian empire and from there to India, and to the Greeks. Rhe Romans had no trace of it at all.



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Roman Numerals - Related Topic: Roman Roads


Bibliography



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