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The great majority of pages within UNRV.com have been written by Chris Heaton (other authors are noted where appropriate). I pursue historical study as a personal passion rather than a professional career, but studied the classics and ancient history at Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan. The primary sources, when available, have been referred to first in the research and preparation of all articles. I attempt to use 'consensus' opinion in several cases and have used my own interpretation of various ancient propaganda when necessary, which should be clearly apparent in most cases. These articles have not been published, in most cases, with their direct supporting footnote documentation. This site is not intended to be an end all for scholarly research, but rather provides general interpretations of the ancient, hopefully in a concise manner. I hope it only to be an introduction and stepping stone into more advanced studies. Additional information can be provided to students when asking for bibliography information regarding specific articles. On a generic basis, the following sources have been instrumental in developing this site:


Ancient Sources

Titus Livius: History of Rome, books nine through twenty-six.
Polybius: The Histories
Plutarch: Parallel Lives
Tacitus: The Annals; Agricola and the Germania
Appian: The Roman History
Dio Cassius: Roman History
Caesar: The Gallic Wars; The Civil Wars
Cicero: Numerous works of letters, speeches and philosophy
Ammianus Marcellinus: The Later Roman Empire
Cato the Elder: Agriculture
Frontinus: The Aqueducts of Rome; Strategies
Galen: On the Natural Faculties
Herodian: History of the Empire
Josephus: The Jewish War
Marcus Aurelius: Meditations
Pliny the Elder: Natural Histories
Pliny the Younger: Letters
Sallust: History of Rome; War with Jugurtha; War with Cataline.
Suetonius: The Twelve Caesars
Vegetius: Roman Military Institutions
Vitruvius: Architecture
Ptolemy: Geography
Augustus: Deeds of the Divine Augustus
Selections of the Historia Augusta

Contemporary Sources

Bennett, Julian Trajan: Optimus Princeps Indiana Press 2001
Birley, Anthony Marcus Aurelius Routledge 2000
Bullfinch, Thomas Bulfinch's Greek and Roman Mythology: The Age of Fable Dover 2000
Connolly, Peter Greece and Rome at War Greenhill 1998
Cornell, Tim The Beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars Routledge 1995
Dodge, Theodore Aryault Hannibal Da Capo Press 2004
Duncan-Jones, Richard Money and Government in the Roman Empire Cambridge 1998
Duncan-Jones, Richard Structure and Scale in the Roman Economy Cambridge 2002
Everitt, Anthony Cicero: The Life and Times of Rome's Greatest Politician Random House 2003
Gibbon, Edward Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Everyman's Library 1993
Goldsworthy, Adrian The Complete Roman Army Thames & Hudson 2003
Goldsworthy, Adrian The Roman Army at War: 100 Bc-Ad 200 Oxford 1998
Goldsworthy, Adrian The Punic Wars Cassell Military 2001
Grant, Michael The Roman Emperors: Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Imperial Rome Orion Publishing Co 1985
Grant, Michael History of Rome Prentice Hall 1978
Grant, Michael Constantine the Great: The Man and His Times Scribner 1994
Grant, Michael A Guide to the Ancient World: A Dictionary of Classical Place Names Porter, 1986
Grant, Michael The Severans: The Changed Roman Empire Routledge 1996
Grant, Michael The Antonines: The Roman Empire in Transition Routledge 1996
Grant, Michael Fall of the Roman Empire Scribner 1997
Heather, Peter The Fall of the Roman Empire : A New History of Rome and the Barbarians Oxford University Press, 2005
Greene, Kevin Archaeology of the Roman Economy University of California 1991
Hart, B.H. Liddell Scipio Africanus: Greater Than Napoleon Da Capo Press 2004
Hekster, Olivier Commodus: An Emperor at the Crossroads Gieben 2002
Huskinson, Janet Experiencing Rome: Culture, Identity and Power in the Roman Empire Routledge 1999
Keaveney, Arthur Sulla the Late Republican Routledge 2005
Kohne, Eckart Gladiators and Caesars: The Power of Spectacle in Ancient Rome University of California 2001
Levick, Barbara Tiberius the Politician Routledge 1999
Levick, Barbara Vespasian Routledge 1999
Lintott, Andrew The Constitution of the Roman Republic Oxford 2003 Massie, Alan Augustus Carroll & Graf 1995
Mattern, Susan Rome and the Enemy: Imperial Strategy in the Principate University of California 2002
Matyszak, Philip Chronicle of the Roman Republic Thames & Hudson 2003
Meier, Christian Caesar Basic Books 1997
Mommsen, Theodor The Provinces of the Roman Empire Ares Publishing 1974
Montagu, John Drago Battles of the Greek and Roman Worlds Greenhill 2000
Nardo, Don Roman Roads and Aqueducts Lucent Books 2000
Pennel, Robert F. Ancient Rome From the Earliest Times Down to 476 A.D Kessinger Publishing 2004
Potter, David Stone Life, Death, and Entertainment in the Roman Empire UMP 1999
Raaflaub, Kurt A. / Toher, Mark Between Republic and Empire: Interpretations of Augustus and His Principate University of California 1993
Raven, Susan Rome In Africa Routledge 1993
Salwey, Peter A History of Roman Britain Oxford 1997
Sayles, Wayne G. Ancient Coin Collecting Krause Publications 2003
Scarborough, John Roman Medicine Cornell 1970
Scullard, H.H. History of the Roman World: 753 to 146 BC Routledge 2002
Scullard, H.H. From the Gracchi to Nero: A History of Rome from 133 B.C. to A.D. 68 Routledge 1990
Sear, Frank Roman Architecture Cornell 1983
Shepherd, William Historical Atlas Henry Holt 1926
Syme, Ronald The Roman Revolution Oxford 1939
Talbert, Richard Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World Princeton 2000
Tellegen-Couperus, Olga Short History of Roman Law Routledge 1993
Turcan, Robert The Gods of Ancient Rome : Religion in Everyday Life from Archaic to Imperial Times Routledge 2001
Van Meter, David Handbook of Roman Imperial Coins Laurion 1991
Wiedemann, Thomas Greek and Roman Slavery Routledge 1989
Wiedemann, Thomas The Julio-Claudian Emperors, Ad 14-70 Duckworth 1989
Williams, Stephen Diocletian and the Roman Recovery Routledge 1997

Other Excellent Web Resources

Dalton Rome Project http://intranet.dalton.org/groups/rome/
De Imperatoribus Romanis http://www.roman-emperors.org/
Ancient History Sourcebook http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/asbook09.html
Julius Caesar, The Last Dictator - Susan Cross http://www.heraklia.fws1.com/
Lacus Curtius - Bill Thayer http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/home.html
Livius - Jona Lendering http://www.livius.org/rome.html
The Perseus Project http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cache/perscoll_Greco-Roman.html
Yale Avalon Project http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/avalon.htm
Roman Army http://www.romanarmy.com/cms/

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