Expulsion of the monarchy results in
creation of the joint offices of consul. (Originally titled praetor
and re-identified as consul with the introduction of the newly defined
office of praetor in 367 BC). Elected by the comitia centuriata (which
was heavily weighted to the patricians). (Livy
Lex Valeria de Provocatione
By (consul?) Publius Valerius in order
to dispel the notion that he wished to re-establish the monarchy (later
received the cognomen Publicola or "people's friend" based on the popularity
of this law).
One part established provocatio, or the right
for citizens to appeal sentences of death or exile, by standing consuls.
It also called for the physical execution along with the forfeiture
of all property for any person who sought to establish themselves as
"The most popular of these laws were those which granted
a right of appeal from the magistrate to the people and devoted to the
gods the person and property of any one who entertained projects of
becoming king." (Livy
508 - 499
Lex Valeria de Aerari?
Introduction of the office of quaestores
classici who were responsible for the public treasury (not to be
confused with the regal office of quaestores parricidii or
public accusers) . Details are uncertain, but it seems to have been
introduced by P. Valerius. (Plutarch
Lex De Dictatore Creando
Establishment of the dictatorship as an
emergency magistracy requiring a senatus consultum. Titus Larcius
Flavus appointed to counter the alliance of Latin towns with the Etruscans
against Rome. (Dionysius
Establishment of the
tribunus plebis magistracy to grant political rights and power
to the plebes after their first secession from the city. Aedilis
plebis magistracy also established. (Livy
Lex Icilia de Tribunis Plebis
By the tribune Sp.
Icilius, reaffirmed the sacrosanctitas of the tribunis plebis
and that interruption of the tribunes while addressing the people's
assembly should result in fines. If the fines are refused than the offender
should face death and confiscation of property. (Dionys
Rogatio Cassia Agraria
By Consul Sp. Cassius
Vicellinus, granted land taken from the Hernci to plebes and allies.
Rejected by the senate and by the plebes due to the inclusion of the
allies. Eventually resulted in the execution of Cassius for treason
(pursuing the monarchy). (Livy
Rogatio Licinia Agraria
By tribune Sp. Licinius,
attempted to force a land grant by opposing a levy of plebes for the
war against the Aequi and Veientines. (Livy
Rogatio Pontificia Agraria
By tribune Tiberius
Pontificius, another defeated attempt to force a land grant by resisting
military levies. (Livy
Rogatio Fabia Agraria
By consul Caesio Fabius,
proposed a land distribution asking the senate to consider distributing
land to plebes based from conquered territory in the current wars. (Livy
Rogatio Considia et Genucia Agraria
By tribunes Q. Considius
and T. Genucius, another defeated attempt to distribute land. (Livy
By unknown tribunes,
roused the plebes once again with a defeated agrarian proposal. (Livy
Lex Publilia Voleronis de Tribunis
By tribune Publilius
Enabled the election of the tribuni plebis through the comitia
tributa rather than the comitia centuriata. As the patricii
could manipulate the election of the people's tribunes in the comitia
through client voting, this law severely curtailed patrician power via
the control of the tribunes. (Livy
Also enabled the election of aediles plebeii
through the tributa. (Dionysius
A provision of this law possibly also increased
the number of tribunes from 2 to 5 (Livy
Elected tribunes increased to 10 In 457 BC (Livy
Rogatio Aemilia Agraria
By consul Titus Aemilius,
a defeated land grant to the plebes. (Livy
Rogatio Aemilia et Fabia Agraria
A joint proposal by
both consuls Titus Aemilius and Quinctius Fabius following up on the
individual rogatio of T. Aemilius above, a reworked agrarian law that
created a colony and distributed land near Antium. Met with disinterest
by the plebes despite senatorial approval. (Livy
By tribune C. Terentilius
Harsa, this proposed a committee of five to investigate laws to regulate
the power of the consuls. Eventually resulted in the establishment of
the twelve tables (450 BC). (Livy
Lex Icilia de Aventino Publicando
By plebeian L. Icilius,
it allotted land on the Aventine to plebeians. Livy suggests that this also
preserved tribunician authority and was passed as a concession to exclude
plebeians from the decemvirate committee for the tabulation of the twelve
3.31, 32), (Dionys
Lex Aternia et Tarpeia de Multis
By the consuls Sp.
Tarpeius and A. Aternius, allowed all magistrates to fine citizens who
resisted their authority, though the amount of the fine varies according
to the sources. (Cicero De Republica II.35, Dionys.
First official codification of Roman
private and public law. Initial proposition (Rogatio Terentilia) in
462 BC established the Decemviri Legibus Scribendis to research
and write these laws. The first 10 tables were completed in 450. The
final two tables were enacted in 449 BC.
The tables (general subject matter):
Table I (Civil procedure)
Table II (Civil procedure)
Table III (Debt)
Table IV (Parents and children)
Table V (Inheritance)
Table VI (Property)
Table VII (Real Property)
Table VIII (Torts)
Table IX (Constitutional principles)
Table X (Funeral regulations)
Table XI (Marriage... forbid marriage between Plebes
By the tribune M.
Duillius: anyone who should leave the plebs without tribunes,
or who should create a magistrate from whom there was no appeal, should
be scourged and beheaded. (Livy
Lex Valeria et Horatia de Plebiscitum
By (consuls or decemvirs?)
L. Valerius Potitus and M. Horatius Barbatus, a series of laws passed
to restore and define rights of tribunes in response to second plebeian
Validated plebescita requiring ratification by
auctoritas patrum [made laws passed in the comitia tributa (tribal
assembly) binding on all people subject to approval in either the Senate
or more likely the comitia curiata (patrician assembly)]. The later
Leges Publiliae (339 BC) and Lex Hortensia (287 BC) redefined the procedure
and/or the restrictions.) (Livy
Lex Valeria et Horatia de Provocatio
(or the right to appeal sentences of death), and re-established
the sacrosanctitas of the Tribunes. (Livy
Lex Valeria et Horatia de Aedilis?
Orders senatus consulta
(resolutions of the Senate) or decreta (consular decrees) be stored
in temple of Ceres under care of plebeian aediles.(Livy
Lex Trebonia de Tribunis Plebis
Proposed by tribune
L. Trebonius, enacted that if the ten tribunes were not chosen before
the comitia was dissolved, those who were elected should not fill up
the number, but that the comitia should be continued until all ten were
Lex Canuleia de Conubio Patrum
By tribune C. Canuleius,
it allowed marriage between patricians and plebeians (previously restricted
by table 11.1 of the "Twelve Tables".)
Canuleius also proposed the eligibility of plebes to the
office of consul, but in order to prevent this the constitution was
altered by the patricians to allow for the election of tribuni militum
cum consulari potestate (military tribunes with consular power)
as opposed to consuls. Over the period of the 78 years, either consuls
or military tribunes could be elected to lead the government depending
on circumstances. (Regarding intermarriage Livy
4.1) (regarding the consular tribunes Livy
First election of
the tribuni militum cum consulari potestate (military tribunes
with consular power) Aulus Sempronius Atratinus, L. Atilius, and T.
the office of censor (patrician only until 351) - L. Papirius Mugillanus
and L. Sempronius Atratinus appointed (consuls had performed this duty
since the inception of the office in 509). (Livy
Rogatio Poetilia Agraria
By the tribune Poetilius,
a failed attempt at the division of territory. (Livy
Rogatio Maelia Agraria
By tribune Sp. Maelius,
attempted to confiscate the property of Servilius Ahala for executing
another Sp. Maelius for sedition without trial (Livy
Lex Aemilia de Censoribus
By dictator Mamercus
Aemilius, limited term of office for censor to 18 months. (Livy
Lex Pinaria et Furia et Postumia
By the tribunes L. Pinarius
Mamercus, L. Furius Medullinus, and Sp. Postumius Albus, an election
canvassing law that made the whitening of a toga for candidates illegal.
Quote Livy "To us now the matter may appear trivial
and hardly worth serious discussion, but it kindled a tremendous conflict
between patricians and plebeians."
Lex Iulia et Papiria de Multarum
By consuls L. Papirius
Crassus and L. Iulius, fixed the cost of fines. (Livy
4.30; Cicero de Rep. II.60)
A proposed division
of division of public land and the formation of colonies. Money was
to be raised for the payment of soldiers by a tax on the occupiers of
the public land. (Livy
4.43; referring to the criteria established in Livy
4.36 dating from 424.)
In the consulships
of N. Fabius Vibulanus and T. Quinctius Capitolinus Barbatus, quaestors
increased from 2 to 4 and the magistracy opened to plebes. (Livy
A failed agrarian
law that had the alternative motive of taking consular tribune A. Sempronius
Atratinus (patrician) to trial on grounds of illegally preventing plebes
from holding higher office. (Livy
Lex Agraria de Labici?
In the year of consular
tribunes Lucius Sergius Fidenas, M. Papirius Mugilanus, and C. Servilius,
following the dictatorshop of Q. Servilius Priscus, the senate decreed
that 1,500 colonists should be sent to the newly conquered lands of
the Labici with 2 iugera of land each. (Livy
Rogatio Maecilia et Metilia Agraria
By tribunes Sp. Maecilius
and M. Metilius. A creative and dangerous attempt at an agrarian law.
Per Livy "They brought forward a measure providing that the territory
taken from an enemy should be assigned to individual owners. If this
were passed the fortunes of a large number of the nobility would be
confiscated. For as the City itself was founded upon foreign soil, it
possessed hardly any territory which had not been won by arms, or which
had become private property by sale or assignment beyond what the plebeians
Rogatio Sextia Agraria
In the year of consular
tribunes P. Cornelius Cossus, C. Valerius Potitus, Q. Quinctius Cincinnatus,
and N. Fabius Vibulanus, by tribune L. Sextius, attempted to send colonists
to Bolae in the same manner as Labici in 418. (Livy
Rogatio Icilia Agraria
By tribune L. Icilius,
various failed and undetailed agrarian proposals (Livy
4.52). Though they can be presumably related to the colonization
of Bolae and the ejection of patricians from public lands as provided
Rogatio Maenia Agraria
By tribune M. Menenius,
attempted to force an agrarian law by withholding plebeian levies in
the war with the Aequi and Volscians. (Livy
4th - 3rd Cent.
Lex Pinaria de Legis Actiones
Of uncertain origin,
it related to the appointment of judges in cases of lawsuits. (Gaius.
Rogatio Trebonia Agraria
By tribune Cn. Trebonius,
an attempt to squeeze through a land distribution after bringing consular
tribunes to trial for selecting tribunis plebis without a vote of the
comitia (per the Lex Trebonia of 448 BC). (Livy
Lex de Civitate Agraria?
Incorporated the residents
of Veii, Capenae, and Fidenae who assisted Rome in the wars of M. Furius
Camillus as citzens. (Livy
An attempt to distribute
land in Pomptine territory (captured from the Volscians) was not supported
by the plebes due to pre-occupation with the Lex de Civitate above.
Lex Licinia Sextia or Leges Liciniae
By tribunes C. Licinius
Stolo and L. Sextius Sextinus Lateranus. Original proposal in 375 BC
failed, but in retaliation the tribunes managed to prevent any magisterial
election (except for tribunes and aediles in the comitia tributa) for
the next 5 years while also securing their own re-elections in this
same time period. (Livy
The law provided for these major issues:
Restored the consulship and the abolition of military
tribunes (see Lex Canuleia above). Also opened the consulship to
plebes, the first of which was one of the tribunes who proposed
the law, L. Sextius Sextinus. (Some scholarship suggests the existence
of plebeian names in the office of consul prior to this point, but
there may be confusion over the office of the military tribunate
with consular powers which did allow for plebeian office-holders).
Limited the amount of ager publicus (public
land) that any individual could own to 500 iugera, curtailing
economic power of patricians. (Livy 6.35) The evidence is unclear
but it would seem that any excess land was distributed among the
plebes. (Varro de Re Rust. 1.2, Columella
de Re Rust. 1.3.9). In relation to the public land, the law
probably limited the amount of livestock that could be kept on that
Established the new patrician offices of praetura
(praetor, later praetor urbanus) and aediles curules (though
both were later opened to plebes... 337 BC for praetors and almost
immediately after creation for aediles). (Livy
Lex Poetelia de Ambitu
Proposed by tribune
C. Poetelius, it prohibited ambitus. Essentially it forbade
candidates canvassing on market days, and soliciting votes in places
in the country where people gathered. The law mainly checked the growing
political potential of rich plebeian novi homines (new men) who had
advantages with voters outside the city. (Livy
Lex Manlia de Vicesima Manumissionum
By consul Cnaeus Manlius,
unprecedented action in getting a law passed in military camp by the
tribes, it levied 5 percent on the value of every slave who was manumitted.
As the money raised under this law was considerable to the exhausted
treasury, the senate confirmed it. (Livy
Lex (Comitia Tributa?)
The tribunes of the
plebs, in direct response to the Lex Manlia above, made it a capital
offense for any one to convene the comitia tributa outside their usual
place of meeting. (Livy
Lex Duilia et Memnenia de Unciario
By tribunes M. Duilius
and L. Menenius, fixed the rate interest rate at 8 1/3 per cent. (Livy
Appointment of C.
Marcius Rutilus (consul 357) as the first plebeian dictator (Livy
Election of C. Marcius
Rutilus as the first plebeian censor (Livy
Lex Genucia or Leges Genuciae
By tribune L. Genucius, several measures
Forbid anyone to accept re-election to the same office in less
than ten years or fill two offices in the same year
Allowed for both elected consuls to be plebeian (first time this
actually occurred was in 172 BC) (The consular
fasti from this point forward also suggests that this law required
one consul to be plebeian as well, but Livy does not report this in
his narrative. (Livy 7.42)
Leges Publiliae Philonis de Plebiscitis
By plebeian dictator
Q. Publilius Philo (part of the law is difficult to differentiate from
that of the Lex Valeria Horatia from 449 BC):
Required one of two appointed censors to be plebeian.
Legislation put to vote in the comitia centuriata
(assembly of the centuries or all the citizens) had to be previously
approved by the comitia curiata (patrician assembly) but effectively
cancelled the patrician right to veto legislation by the people.
First plebeian praetor
elected - Q. Publilius Philo (after having already held the offices
of dictator and consul per above). (Livy
Lex Papiria de Civitate Acerranorum
By praetor L. Papirius,
by which the rights of citizenship were conferred on the inhabitants
of Acerrae. (Livy
Lex Poetelia Papiria de Nexis
By consul C. Poetelius
against the actions of a money-lender by name of L. Papirius:
According to Livy, a "new era of liberty for plebes" as
debt-slavery was eliminated: "No man (shall) be kept in irons or in
the stocks, except such as have been guilty of some crime, and then
only until they have worked out their sentence; and, further, that the
goods and not the person of the debtor shall be the security for the
Lex Ovinia de Senatus Lectione
Of uncertain date
and origin, it gave the censors certain powers in regulating the lists
of the senators (ordo senatorius): the main object seems to have been
to exclude all improper persons from the senate, and to prevent their
admission, if in other respects qualified. (Festus, s.v. Praeteriti
Senatores; Cicero de Leg. III.12)
Lex Atilia et Marcia de Tribunis
By tribunes L. Atilius
and C. Marcius, regarding the office of the military tribune; sixteen
were to be appointed by the people for the four legions; previously
appointed by consuls. (Livy
Lex Sulpicia et Sempronia
By consuls P. Sulpicius
Saverrio and P. Sempronius Sophus, this authorized a measure providing
that no one could dedicate a temple or an altar without being ordered
to do so by the senate or by a majority of the tribunes of the plebs.
(In response to the people urging the Pontifex Maximus Cornelius Barbatus
to dedicate the Concord on the Vulcanal without pre-approval of the
Lex Ogulnia de Auguribus et Pontificibus
By tribunes Q. Ogulnius
Gallus and Cn. Gallus, this law increased the number of pontifices to
eight and that of the augurs to nine; for the first time plebeians were
eligible. Four of the nine pontifices and five of the augurs were to
be plebes. (Livy
Lex Valeria de Provocatione
By consul M. Valerius
Maximus Corvus. Seemingly re-affirmed and strengthened the original
Leges Valeriae of 509 and 449 BC that provided for the right of appeal
in capital sentences. (Livy
Lex Vallia de Manus Iniectione
Of uncertain date
and origin, it provided for a defendant to resist physical arrest of
a creditor in cases regarding repayment of debt. (Gaius.
3rd - 2nd Cent.
Lex Publilia de Sponsu
Of uncertain date
and origin, it regarded the recovery of loaned debt for sponsors of
a debtor. (Gaius.
Inst. 3.127, 4.22)
by the tribune Maenius. Much like the Leges Publiliae of 339 BC regarding
the approval of centuriate legislation, this law required the senate
or patrician assembly to approve and grant imperium to any plebe elected
by the centuries. (Cicero; Brutus, 14, Livy
Proposed by theplebeian dictator Quintus Hortensius effectively ending the "struggle
of the orders".
Allowed that plebiscites passed in the tribal assembly
carried the force of law and applied to all citizens, including patricians
without approval. (Gaius; Institutes 1.3, Gellius; Attic Nights 15.27.4)
Office of praetor peregrinus
established (original sole praetor further defined as urbanus).
Lex Hieronica Frumentaria
Adaption of the traditional law by king
Hiero of Syracuse, regulated the Roman taxation (including grain) of
Sicily. (Cicero, Verr. II.13, 26)
232 or 228
Lex Flaminia Agraria
Proposed by tribune Gaius Flaminius.
Distributed land formerly held by the Senones to Roman citizens. (Cicero
Acad. II.5, De Senect. IV, Polybius
2.21) (Polybius suggests 232 but Cicero is likely more accurate
Two additional praetors added for the
administration of Sicily and Sardinia. (Livy
Lex Claudia de Senatoribus
By tribune Q. Claudius, with the support of consul elect (for 217)
C. Flaminius Nepos, stated that no senator or senator’s son
could own a sea-going ship with a capacity of more than 300 amphorae
(roughly 7 tons). It was intended to restrict profit on overseas trading
by members of the senate. (Livy
Lex Minucia de Triumviris Mensariis
By tribune M. Minucius, appointmented
three treasury officials. (Livy
By tribune C. Oppius, imposed restrictions
on women's dress, ownership of gold, and use of horse-drawn vehicles.
This was the first of several leges sumptuariae (sumptuary
laws) regarding moral conduct, it was repealed in 195 BC. (Val. Max.
Lex Licinia de Ludis Apollinaribus
By praetor P. Licinius Varus proposed
a measure to the people providing that the games of Apollo should always
be celebrated on the same day (July 5). (Livy
Lex Cincia de Muneralis
By tribune M. Cincius Alimentus, entitled
a trial advocate to take gifts in order to prosecute or defend a case.
(Cicero de Orat. II.71, ad Att. 1.20; Livy
Lex Furia Testamentaria
Uncertain date and origin, it restricted
the amount of property that could be willed to a non-traditional heir.
Inst. 2.224, 225, 4.23,
24; Cicero in Verr. I.43)
Lex Porcia (Laeca?)
By tribune P. Porcius Laeca; re-affirmed
right of appeal (provocatio) in capital cases. (References
are difficult to discern and are confusing with the additional Leges
Porciae that follows below... this particular law seems to have been
evidenced through numismatic confirmation... the "libertas" coin of
moneyer L. Porcius c.125 BC. Also Cicero de Repub II.54)
199 - 126?
Lex Aebutia de Formulis
Abolished the legis actiones trial system
and introduced formulary procedure (Gaius
Lex Porcia de Provinciis
Likely by (praetor?) M. Porcius Cato
Major (or at least heavily sponsored by him). This law dealt with provincial
corruption and restrictions on money-lending by provincial governors.
32.27, Cicero Verr. II.4, 5)
198 - 184
Lex Porcia de Tergo Civium
Proposed by M. Porcius Cato Major (praetor
198, consul 195), this (provocatio) law prohibited scourging
of citizens without appeal. (Livy
10.9; Cicero de Repub II.31, pro Rabir. III, 4; Sallust
Cat 51.21) (Dates are not definitive, perhaps later propositions
by consul L. Porcius Licinus 184 BC)
Election of two additional praetors for
the administration of Hispania. (Livy
Lex Licinia de Creandis Triumviris Epulonibus
By tribune C. Licinius Lucullus, created
the priestly office of the epulones. They arranged feasts and
public banquets at festivals and games. Initially 3 were selected but
this grew to 7. Open to plebes and patricians. (Livy
Lex Valeria et Fundania de Dege Oppia Abroganda
By tribunes M. Fundanius and L. Valerius,
this repealed the Lex Oppia of 215 BC. (Livy
Lex Sempronia de Pecunia Credita
By tribune M. Sempronius, authorized
debts contracted with members of the Latin and allied communities to
be regulated by the same laws as those contracted with Roman citizens
Lex Baebia de Praetoribus
By tribune M. Baebius Tamphilus?, suggested
that 4 and 6 praetors should be chosen in alternate years (Livy
40.44) but this was largely ignored (though it did occur at least
Lex Acilia de Intercalando
By consul M'. Acilius Glabrio, regulated
the calendar. (Macrob. Sat. 1.13)
A sumptuary law proposed by tribune C.
Orchius that limited the number of guests that could be invited for
various entertainments. (Cato Orig VII.12-14, Macrobius; Saturnalia
Lex Cornelia et Baebia de Ambitu
By consuls P. Cornelius Cethegus and
M. Baebius Tamphilus, concerned election canvassing and bribery. (Livy
Lex Villia Annalis
Proposed by tribune L. Villius Annalis,
it set the standards for the politicalstages of the cursus
Set the minimum ages for the curule magistracies
(those that held imperium): curule aediles 36, praetor 39, consul
42 (ages in the year of office)
Set the minimum age for quaestor at 30.
Required a 1 year gap between service in one magistracy
and election to the magistracy of the next level above. (ie a praetor
for the year 180 could not be consul until 178)
By consul C. Claudius Pulcher, made it
illegal for any person to adopt or manumit Latin citizens with the view
of changing his citizenship, and also required those who had become
Roman citizens by this means to renounce their citizenship. (Livy
Lex Licinia et Cassia
By consuls P. Licinius Crassus, C. Cassius
Longinus, permitted consuls and praetors to appoint military tribunes
(tribuni militum). (Livy
Lex Voconia de Mulierum Hereditatibus
Proposed by tribune Q. Voconius Saxa and
supported by Cato Major, this law attempted to limit the amount of property
that could be willed to female heirs, though it was generally avoidable
through various loopholes. (Cicero Verrus II.1, de Rep III.17, Gellius
Lex Fannia Sumptuaria
Proposed by the consul C. Fannius Strabo,
this sumptuary law limited the amount of expenditures festivals and
2.24; Macrobius. Sat. 3.17; Pliny Nat. Hist. 10.50)
Leges Aelia et Fufia
Provided the right of obnuntiatio.
Any curule magistrate or tribune could prevent or disband assemblies
of the comitia by declaring various omens as unfavorable. This was effective
until repealed by the Leges Clodiae of tribune P. Clodius in 58 BC.
(Cicero Phil. II.32, pro Sestio 15, ad Att. II.9)
Lex Aebutia de Magistratibus Extraordinem
Forbade the proposer of an extraordinary
magistracy from being elected to the office. (Cicero in Rull. II.8,
Lex Calpurnia de Repetundis
By tribune L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi,
this established a permanent court (quaestio perpetua) overseen
by an appointed praetor to monitor the acquisition of money by provincials
governors and magistrates abroad. (Cic. de Off. II.21, Brut. 27)
Proposed by tribune
A. Gabinius, it provided for magisterial election by ballot rather than
open voting in the comitia. (Cicero de Leg. III.35, Livy Perio. 54,
Pliny Epistulae 3.20)
Lex Cassia Tabellaria
Taballaria by tribune L. Cassius Longinus. Much like the Gabinia
above, this introduced voting by secret ballot in the courts of law,
except for cases of treason. (Cicero Sestio 103, Leg. III.35-37, Brut.
97, 106, Acad. II.13, Amic.41)
Lex Sempronia Agraria
By tribune Ti. Sempronius
Gracchus, this intended to distribute Ager Publica (public
land) among the poorest plebes. Additionally, the plebes receiving such
land were to pay small rents and were required not to vacate said land
for a length of year (though the exact number is uncertain). The lex
Licinia Sextia that limited ownership of land to 500 iugera was also
upheld which proved a difficult process due to the great tracts of land
that had already been purchased, sold, inherited, developed, etc. A
commission of 3 men, Tiberius Gracchus, his brother Caius Gracchus and
Appius Claudius were appointed to oversee the process, which ultimately
resulted in the assassination of Ti. Gracchus. (Cicero Leg.Agr. II.10,
Sest 103; Diod. Sicc. 34.7; Livy
Perio. 58; Vell.
Pat. 2.2; Plut.
Tib.Gracc. 13; Appian
Civ. War 1.12-13)
Edictum Rupilia de Sicilia?
By proconsul P. Rupilius
(consul 132). Reorganized the administration of Sicily after the first
servile war. (Cicero in Verr. II.13, 15, 16, 37)
Lex Papiria Tabellariae
Proposed by the tribune
C. Papirius Carbo, introduced the ballot in the enactment and repeal
of laws (Cic. de Leg. III.16)
Rogatio Papiria de Tribunis Plebis
Proposed by the tribune
C. Papirius Carbo, attempted to allow a candidate to be elected tribune
as often as they wished without interruption. Defeated through the opposition
of P. Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus Africanus. (Livy
Perio. 59; Cicero De am. 25, 96, De Or. II.40)
131 or 102
By tribune C. Atinius
(131 BC) or C. Atinius Labeo (102 BC), admitted plebeian tribunes to
the senate. (Gell. 14.8.2)
Lex Iunia de Peregrinis
By tribune M. Iunius
Pennus, it banished peregrini (non citizens) from the city who had falsely
claimed citizenship. Essentially proposed to counteract an initiative
by consul Fulvius Flaccus to provide citizenship to the same. Related
to the growing dissatisfaction of the Italians as subjects rather than
equals. (Val. Max. 9.5, Appian
Civ. War 1.21, 1.34)
By tribune Caius Gracchus,
proposed a series of laws:
de Capite Civium: prohibited the execution of Roman citizens
without a trial (Cicero pro Rab.Perd. 12, Cat. 4, Red. Sen. 37-38,
Red. Pop. 6, Domo 82, 87, de Rep. 1, Leg. III, Brut.128; Diod. Sic.
Pat. 2.7; Plut:
C. Gracc. 4)
de Militum?: ordained that clothing should be furnished to the
soldiers at the public cost, that nothing should be deducted from
their pay to meet this charge, and that no one under seventeen should
be enrolled as a soldier.
de Provinciis Consularibus: enacted, that in every year, before
the comitia for electing the consuls, the senate should determine
the two provinces which the consuls should have; and the consuls
were to settle between themselves by lot. (Cicero Dom. IX.24, de
prov. coss. II.3; 7.7; Sall.
de Provincii Asiatica?: regulated the taxation of provinces,
specifically Asia Minor, to prevent corruption. (Cicero Verr. II.3;
Diod. Sicc. 35.25)
de Coitionis?: a law against judicial conspiracy. (Cicero Clus.
Lex Acilia Repetundarum
By tribune M.' Acilius
Glabrio, reformed the quaestio de repetundis (court for the
recovery of property) enacted in the Lex Calpurnia of 149 BC. This court
penalized extortion by senate magistrates and was overseen by the equites.
Likely related to the Lex Sempronia of C. Gracchus above. (Cicero Verr.
By consul C. Fannius,
contained the same provisions as the Iunia de Peregrinis in regards
to the Latini and Italici. Essentially an attempt to negate the vote
for proposed Gracchan legislation. (Plut.
C. Gracc.12; Appian
Civ. War 1.23)
Lex Maria Tabellaria
By tribune C. Marius,
a voting law that restricted the size of passages to ballot boxes probably
in order to reduce corruption/bribery and insure free voting. (Cicero
Leg. III; Plut.
Lex Octavia Frumentaria
By tribune M. Octavius,
this modified the frumentaria law of Gracchus (regarding the grain dole)
to ease the burden on the treasury. He probably either raised the price
of the corn, or reduced the size of the distribution to each citizen
(Cicero Brut. 222, de Off. II.21)
Lex Aemilia Sumtuaria
Possibly by consul
M. Aemilius Scaurus (or by Aemilius Lepidus in 78 BC, but there were
possibly two related laws passed in both years), this limited the kind
and quantity of food that was to be used in festivals/entertaining.
(Pliny Nat. Hist. 8.223; Gell.
Lex Thoria Agraria
By tribune Spurius
Thorius, repealed the Gracchan law distributing public land, but allowed
those who had already taken possession to keep said land. Rents due
the state for such land was to be distributed to the poor. (Cic De Orat.
II, 284, Brut. 136; Appian
Civ. War 1.27)
By tribune C. Mamilius,
appointed arbiters to clarify disputes between landlords. (Cicero Leg.
Lex Caelia Tabellaria
By tribune C. Caelius
Caldus, modified the Lex Cassia of 137 BC and establishes voting by
secret ballot in cases of treason (perduellio). (Cicero Rhet.
I.25, IV.34 Leg. III.36; Orosius 5.15)
Lex Servilia Iudicaria
By consul Q. Servilius
Caepio, temporarily returned some control of quaestio de repetundis
(property courts, relating largely to extortion) to the senate rather
than equites (Cicero Clus. 140, Orat. I.225, II.199, Brut. 43, 44, 63,
86, 161, 164)
By tribune L. Cassius
Longinus, it excluded from the senate persons deprived of imperium by
popular vote (iudicium populi). (Ascon. 78)
104 or 101
Lex Servilia Glaucia de Repetundis
By tribune C. Servilius
Glaucia. Seems to have repealed the Lex Servilia of 106. This restored
control of the property courts to the equites. It also introduced comperindinatio
which allowed for a two day adjournment of procedures. Exile was a penalty
for conviction and monetary fines were increased. Any non citizen who
successfully brought charges against a defendant would be given citizenship.
(Cicero Brut. 62, 224, Verr. I.9, II.1, pro Balbo, 23, 24, 54)
Lex Domitia de Sacerdotiis
By tribune Cn. Domitius
Ahenobarbus, it transferred the right of electing the members of the
4 colleges of priests from the priests themselves directly to the people
(probably in the comitia tributa). (Cicero Leg. Agr. II.7, Epist. ad
Brut. I.5; Vell.
Pat. 2.12.3; Suet.
Lex Appuleia Agraria et Frumentaria
By tribune L. Appuleius
Saturninus, provided settlement for Marius' veterans. The law included
a clause that required the senate to swear an oath to uphold this law
prior to it being put to the people for vote which was contested (Metellus
Numidicus in particular). While the law carried, public violence and
the demagoguery of Saturninus resulted in the law being nulled. (Cic
Leg 2.14; Livy
Per. 69; Plut.
Marius 29, Crassus
Civ. War. 1.29-30) There was also a law regarding the grain dole
(frumentaria) (Cicero. Rhet. ad Her. I,12)
By the consuls Q. Caecilius Metellus
Nepos and T. Didius. Required the passage of 3 nundinae (market
days) between public declaration of a proposed law and the actual vote
of the people. Also forbade the practice of lex satura, or
the combination of several different laws in a single proposal. (Cicero
Phil. V.8, pro Domo, 16, 20, 41, 53 ad Att. II.9)
Lex Licinia Mucia Civilibus Regundis
By consuls L. Licinius Crassus and Q.
Mucius Scaevola Pontifex, created a quaestio (committee) to
investigate Italians who had recently and likely illegally enrolled
as citizens. Initiated the Marsic or Social War. (Cicero Balb. 48-49,
54, De Or II.257, Brut 63, Off III.47; Sall. Hist. 1)
Edictum Lician et Domitia de Rhetoribus?
An edict by the censors Cn. Domitius
Ahenobarbus et L. Licinius Crassus, banned schools of rhetoric at Rome.
(Cicero DeOr. 3'93; Tac. Dial. 35'1; Suet. Rhet. 1; Gellius 15.11)
Lex Minicia de Conubium
Ordered that children born of parents
of mixed status civitatis receive lower status. (Gaius Inst.1.78)
By the tribune M. Livius Drusus Minor, a series of laws including:
de Frumentaria et Agraria: regarded the grain dole and
the distribution of land in new colonies.
de Iuidiciara?: addressed the combination of senators
and equites as court judges.
de Senatum ex Equestri Ordine: sought to enroll 300 qualified
equites as senators.
Rogatio de Foederatae Civitates: dealt with the incorporation
of Italian allies into the citizenship--not passed into law, see below
Though these proposals did pass into law (save for the de Foederatae Civitates which was in process at the time of Drusus' murder) they did so only with fierce
opposition. Social upheaval led to the assassination of Drusus and
his laws were revoked on the grounds of contra auspicia (passed
after bad omens declared any attempted legislation as invalid). (Cicero
Dom. 41, 50, Leg II.14, 31; Diod. Sicc. 37.10)
Lex Varia de Maiestate
By the tribune Quintus Varius, a law
to bring prosecution to any citizens who openly or secretly aided the
Italians to acquire citizenship. (Appian
Civ. War 37)
By tribune M. Plautius Silvanus, selected
15 people (completely disregarding wealth or social rank) from each
of the Roman tribes to act as annual judges in the criminal trials.
(Asconius 79). Later repealed in the series of Leges Corneliaeby
Lex Plautia et Papiria de Civitate
By tribunes M. Plautius Silvanus and
C. Papirius Carbo, granted further citizenship rights to Italian allies.
Full citizenship was given to any who were living in Italy at the time
the law was passed and provided they give their name to the praetor
urbanus at Rome. (Cicero Rhet. 3, Arch. 7; Vell.
Lex Papiria de Asse Semunciali
By tribune C. Papirius Carbo, as a condition
of citizenship granted in the previous lex above (de Civitate), put
an end to the coinage of bronze in the few confederate towns in Italy
which were still coining in their own names, Paestum alone was excepted.
Nat. Hist. 33.13)
Lex Pompeia de Civitate
By consul Cn. Pompeius Strabo, legally
created the province of Cisalpine Gaul by granting citizenship (civitas)
and granted Latin rights (latinitas) on Transalpine Gaul. (Asconius
3; Pliny Nat. Hist. 3)
By tribune Publius Sulpicius Rufus, proposed
several laws that challenged constitutional standards at the behest
of C. Marius and through the use of mob violence.
de Novorum Civium Libert. Suffragiis: Authorized
the distribution new Italian citizens and the libertini among the
thirty-five tribes in order to increase the voting power of the
Marian faction. (Livy
Perio. 77; Ascon. 64; Plut:
Sulla 8; Appian
Civ. War 1.55)
Revocando Exsilium?: Recalled political
exiles. (Cicero Rhet II.45; Livy
Set the maximum debt that a senator could be obligated
for at less than 2,000 denarii. (Plut.
The senate attempted a iustitium (cessation of
public business) to circumvent the vote but the mob violence of the
Marians and personal threats against any opposition forced the senate
to withdraw the justitium, allowing the passage of all the proposals.
This in turn, prompted Sulla to march on Rome with his army in defiance
of the Marians.
Leges Corneliae et Pompeiae
By the consuls L. Cornelius Sulla and
Q. Pompeius Rufus after taking control of Rome by force:
Sulpicia de Abrogatio: Annulled all the recently
passed laws of Sulpicius on the grounds that they were passed after
the legal justitium (cessation of business) of the senate.
de Proscriptione: Exiled and proscribed members
of the Marian faction including Sulpicius, Marius, his son Marius,
Publius Cethegus, Iunius Brutus, Gnaeus and Quintus Granius, Publius
Albinovanus and Marcus Laetorius.
Hortensia de Abrogatio?: Overturned various aspects
of the Lex Valeria et Horatia of 449 BC, the Leges Publilae of 339
or the Lex Hortensia of 287, reintroducing senatorial debate as
requirement before any proposal could be brought before the people.
Also voting was to be by the comitia centuriate rather than the
comitia tributa, effectively restoring election/voting supremacy
to the patricians and wealthy nobiles.
de Tribinus Plebis?: reduced the power of the tribunes
(further defined or perhaps not even addressed until the Leges Corneliae
of 81 BC)
By Praetor M. Marius Gratidianus, a
popular edict fixed the weight of silver coinage in order to prevent
rampant fraud. (Pliny
33.46) A nephew of C. Marius, Gratidianus was later murdered by
Sergius Catilina in the proscriptions of Sulla. (Plut.
Decretum de Civitate? or Lex Cornelia de Civitate
Restored the rights of citizens expelled by Cinna. Freedmen are enrolled as citizens and
distributed in the 35 tribes via senatorial decree. (Livy
Perio. 84) Perhaps this entry is confirmation of the broader scope Leges Corneliae detailed in 81 BC below.
Lex Cornelia de Civitate?
Sulla incorporates inhabitants of Spain,
Gaul and Sicily with Roman citizenship. (Cicero Balb. 50,
Pro Arch. 25, Pro Verrus 2.4)
By dictator (first dictator appointed
in 120 years) L. Cornelius Sulla Felix, various reforms to restore senatorial
power along with numerous public policies.
de civitate?: manumitted and gave citizenship
to slaves who supported him naming them Cornelii (Appian
Civ. War 1.100)See also the Decretum de Civitate of 84 BC above, which may be support for the same legal action.
de Praetoribus et de Viginti Quaestoribus:
increased the number of praetors to 8 and quaestors to 20 (Tac.
de Magistratibus: quaestorship made prerequisite
for election as praetor which in turn was a prerequisite for the
consulship. Reaffirmed the Lex Villia Annalis of 180 BC requiring
10 year gaps between holding the same magistracy. (Appian
Civ. War 100)
de Censoribus: reduced or eliminated the
office of the censor, but restored by the legislation of Gn. Pompeius
Magnus and P. Licinius Crassus c. 70 BC. (ad Cic.Div. in Caecil.
3; Cicero Verr. 1.54; Val.Max. 5.9; Plut.
de Falsis: severely punished the falsification or wills.
(Cicero Verr. 2.1; Justin Dig. 1.2.2)
de Maiestate [also de Sicariis et Veneficis
(murder via witchcraft), de Nummaria and de Ambitu
(bribery), de Iniuriis (injury)]: numerous adjustments
to public behavior codes and the establishment of courts. Also revised
treason law to circumvent illegalities or rogue behavior of provincial
governors. (Cicero Clu. 151, 154, Pis. 50, Rab.Post. 8-9, Fam. 3.11;
Sen Apocol 14; Justin. Dig 1.2.2)
de Sumtuaria: limited personal expenditures
on entertaining/feasts. (Gell.
2.24; Amm.Marc. 16.5; Macrob. Sat. 3.17)
By consul C. Aurelius
Cotta, rescinded the Lex Cornelia of Sulla (81 BC) that prevented tribunis
plebis from being eligible for higher magistracies after their terms
as tribunes. (Sall. Hist. 2'45, 3.34; Ascon. 66-67, 78)
Lex Terentia et Cassia Frumentaria
By consuls M. Terentius
Varro Lucullus and C. Cassius Longinus, another law dealing with the
grain dole. It distributed the dole at reduced prices. (Cicero Verr
II.3, 5; Sall. Hist. 3.34)
Lex Gellia et Cornelia de Civitate
By the consuls L.
Gellius and Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Clodianus, enables commanders to
confer citizenship for valor. (Cicero Balb. 8, 14)
Edictum Hieronica Abrogatio?
By Caius Verres, proconsular
governor of Sicily. Altered the terms of the Lex Hieronica (215? BC)
which governed the taxation rules of that province. This along with
many illegalities resulted in his famous prosecution by Cicero. (Cicero
By consuls C. Calpurnius
Piso and M'. Acilius Glabrio, permanently exluded those guilty of election
bribery from future magisterial elections. (Cicero Mur. 67; Cass.Dio.
By the tribune C.
Cornelius. Proposed and/or enacted a series of laws. One restricted
the power of the senate to grant immunity from legal constraints. (Quint.
10.5.12). Another forced praetors to abide by the rules of their own
edicts (which they often tried to alter as they pursued various court
Lex Roscia Theatralis
By tribune L. Roscius
Otho, gave the equites a special place at the public spectacles in fourteen
rows or seats (in quatuordecim gradibus sive ordinibus) next to the
senators in the orchestra. (Cicero, Mur. 19, 40, Phil., 2.18, Cass.Dio.
67 or 58
By A. Gabinius as
tribune in 67 or consul in 58, forbade all loans of money at Rome to
foreign envoys. The object was to prevent money from being borrowed
for the purpose of bribing the senate. (Cicero ad Att. V.21, VI.1, 2)
Lex Manilia De Libertinorum Suffragiis
By tribune Manilius,
enables freedmen to vote in the same tribe as their former masters (revoked
by the Senate in 66). (Cass.Dio.
By tribune G. Papius,
barred aliens from living in Rome. (Cass.Dio.37.9)
Lex Ampia Labiena de Trimphalibus
Ornamentis Cn. Pompeius
By tribunes T. Ampius
and T. Labienus, allowed special provisions for Cn. Pompeius Magnus
regarding triumphal attire after his eastern victories. (Vell.
Pat. 2.40; Cass.Dio.37.21)
Rogatio Servilia Agraria
By tribune P. Servilius
Rullus, supported by consul C. Antonius Hybrida, an extensive land distribution
proposal including Campania and portions of the eastern settlements
of Cn. Pompeius Magnus. Successfully opposed by consul M. Tullius Cicero.
(The agrarian laws of C. Iullius Caesar 59 BC bear much resemblence
to this proposal). (Cicero Leg. Agr. 1-3, Att. 2.1, Pis. 4, Fam. 13.4;
Plin. Nat. Hist. 7, 8; Plut.
Cic. 12; Cass.Dio.37.25)
Lex Tullia de Ambitu
By consul M. Tullius
Cicero, bribery laws largely in opposition to L. Sergius Catilina. (Cicero
Vat. 15, 37, Sest. 44, 133, Mur. 2, 23, 32, 41; Cass.Dio.37.29)
By consuls L. Licinius
Murena and Iunius Silanus, ordered that official text of statutes be
deposited in state archives. (Cicero pro Sestio 64, Phil. V.3, ad Att.
II.9, IV.16, in Vatin. 14)
Lex Porcia Frumentaria?
By tribune M. Porcius
Cato, in the wake of the crisis with Catiline, it advised the senate
to reduce the price for distributions of grain at a cost to the treasury
of 1250 talents. (Plut.
Cat. Min. 31; Caes.
Lex Maria et Porcia
By tribunes M. Porcius
Cato and L. Marius, fixed penalties for commanders who gave false information
about numbers killed in war in setting the rules for granting of triumphs.
Rogatio Caecilia de Pompeia?
By tribune Q. Caecilius
Metellus Nepos, proposed that Cn. Pompeius Magnus and his legions should
return to Italy from his eastern campaigns in order to quell potential
insurrection after the Catiline conspiracy, essentially granting Pompeius
Sullan-like dictatorial authority. Opposed by tribunes M. Porcius Cato
and Minucius Thermus. (Plut.
Cat. Min. 26-29)
Rogatio Aufidia de Ambitu
By tribune Aufidia,
a failed proposal to punish a briber, but only if he actually carried
through with a bribe rather than just suggesting it. (Cicero. ad Att.
By tribune L. Flavius, for the distribution
of lands among Pompeius' soldiers, consul Caecilius Metellus was imprisoned
for opposing it. Failure of this proposal was remedied in the Leges
Iuliae of 59. (Cicero ad Att. I.18, 19; Cass.Dio.37.50)
By praetor Metellus Nepos, cancelled
taxes on imports. (Cass.Dio.37.51)
Lex Fufia Iudiciaria
By praetor Q. Fufius Calenus, quoting
"finding that the votes of all were hopelessly confused, at least
in party contests, since each of the orders attributed the good measures
to itself and referred the preposterous ones to the others, proposed
a that each order should cast its vote separately. His purpose was that
even if their individual opinions could not be revealed, by reason of
their taking this vote secretly, yet it might become clear how the orders,
at least, felt."
By consul Iulius Caesar with the support
of fellow triumvirs Gn Pompeius and M. Licinius Crassus, several laws
By tribune P. Clodius Pulcher, a series
of laws including:
de Auspiciis: negated the Lex Aelia et
Fufia of 150 that allowed magistrates to declare assemblies of the
people invalid due to bad omens. (Cicero Red.Sen. 11, Har.Resp.
58, Sest. 33, 56, Vat. 18, Pis. 9-10; Cass.Dio.
de Frumentaria: distributed grain completely
free of charge. (Cicero Dom. 25, Sest. 55; Cass.Dio.
de Sodalitatibus or de Collegiis:
restored the right to belong to collegia or guilds. (Cicero
Sest. 34, 55; Cass.Dio.
de Censoribus: restricted the power of
censors to regulate the rolls of the senate. (Cicero Sest. 34,
38.13) Repealed by Metellus Scipio in 52. (Cass.Dio.
de Provinciis?: allocated the provinces
of Macedonia to consul Piso, and Syria to consul Gabinius. (Plut.
de Civibus Romanis Interemptis: exiled
whoever put to death a Roman citizen without trial (Vell.Pat.
2.45; Cicero Pro Domo. 18, Post Redit. in Sen. 2.5, Cass.Dio.
de Exsulibus Byzantinis: banished Cicero
from Rome based on the de Civibus Romanis Interemptis above (related
to the Catiline conspiracy). (Cicero Dom. 43-53, 82-85, Sest. 53-54,
Pis. 72, Leg 3; Plut.
Cat. Min. 30, Plut.
Cic. 32; Cass.Dio.
Lex Cornelia et Caecilia de Cn. Pompeius
By consuls P. Cornelius Lentulus Spinther
and Q. Caecilius Metellus Nepos; authorized Cn. Pompeius Magnus with
extraordinary powers to supervise the grain dole (res frumentaria) for
5 years. (Cicero ad Att. IV.1; Livy
Perio. 104; Cass.Dio.
By consul M. Licinius Crassus, this lex
against bribery was specially directed against a particular mode of
canvassing, which consisted in employing agents (sodales) to mark out
the members of the several tribes into smaller portions, and to secure
more effectually the votes by this division of labor. (Cicero Planc.
36, 44; Cass.Dio.
By consul Cn. Pompeius Magnus, further
defined the penalties for parricide. (Just. Inst. 4.18; Paul. Sent.
Decretum de Tacito Iudicio
By praetor M. Porcius Cato, persuaded
the senate to make a decree that magistrates elect, in case they had
no accuser, should freely come before a sworn court and submit accounts
of their election (an attempt to purge election bribery and illegal
canvassing of votes). (Plut.
Cato Min. 44)
de Provinciis: set a gap of five years after a magistrate's
year of office, before they can govern a province (Cass.Dio.
de Iure Magistratuum: made election in absentia illegal,
but Caesar was exempted for the upcoming election. This component
of the Leges Pompeiae was amended retroactively, after suspicion
was aroused regarding Pompey's attitude towards Caesar. (Cicero
Att. 8.3, Phil. 2; Plut.
Pomp. 56; Suet.
Caes. 28; Cass.Dio.
Lex? Decemtribunis? de Caesaris Absentiis? (Law of
the ten tribunes)
Several attempted decrees of the
senate, seemingly originating with consul C. Claudius Marcellus,
With the approval of Cn. Pompeius, it called for
Caesar to quit his province after March 1 of the following year
(ending his proconsular imperium). Passed.
Declared that a tribune who interfered with motions
brought before the senate or the people shall be considered to have
acted against the Republic. Vetoed.
Declared that Caesar's veterans in Gaul who wished
to be discharged should have their claims reviewed by the senate
in order to grant those requests. Vetoed.
Clarified the imperium of pro-praetors and their
appointment to provinces. Vetoed.
(Cicero Fam. 8.8)
Rogatio Scribonia de Intercalando
By tribune C. Scribonius
Curio on behalf of Caesar, attempted to interject an intercalary month
in the calendar, presumably to give Caesar more time before his imperium
in Gaul expired. (Cicero Fam. 8.6; Cass.Dio.
A series of populist proposals by
tribune C. Scribonius Curio,
Viaria: regarded the appointment of a commission
of curators for a 5 year term to oversee road building and repairs,
for which Curio himself would have been nominated.
Agraria: proposed to distribute the lands of King
Juba of Numidia to the people.
Alimentaria: proposed that aediles should
measure the sale of provisions.
An attempt by consul
C. Claudius Marcellus to fix the date of Caesar's ending imperium in
Gaul on November 13 and therefore recall him to Rome. While supported
by Cn. Pompeius Magnus, it was rigorously opposed and ultimately defeated
by tribune C. Scribonius Curio. (Cicero Att. 7.1, 7, Fam 8.11, 13; Caesar
Gall. War. 8.53; Livy
By proconsul Cn. Pompeius
Magnus, offered to the senate that he would be willing to lay down his
arms with Caesar as proposed by Curio. However, Curio rejected it on
the grounds that Pompey would not show good faith by giving up his command
Civ. War 2.28)
A vote of the senate
overwhelmingly supports the earlier Rogatio Scribonia (reintroduced
by the tribune M. Antonius) that both Pompeius and Caesar should lay
down their commands at the same time. The vote, if it took place, was
negated by the opposition of consul Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio
and consul elect L. Cornelius Lentulus Crus. (Plut.
Cat. Min._51, Caes
30 , Pomp.
58 , Anton.
Civ. War 2.30; Cass.Dio.
Dec 2 50
Edictum Aemilia et Claudia
Consuls L. Aemilius
Paullus Lepidus and C. Claudius Marcellus without the agreement of the
Senate authorized Pompeius Magnus to take up arms in defense of the
Republic against Caesar based on a false rumor that Caesar had crossed
the Alps with his army. (Plut.
Pomp. 59; Appian
Civ. War 2.31; Cass.Dio.
Dec 9 50
Final proposal by
proconsul C. Iullius Caesar, offered to give up all but two legions,
but retain proconsular authority in Gaul and Illyria and be appointed
consul for 49. Accepted by Pompeius but rejected by the consuls. (Suet.
Caes. 43; Appian
Civ. War 2.32)
By C. Iulius Caesar
through tribune Roscius, gave full citizenship to the people of Transalpine
Gaul. (Table of Heraclea, Cic. ad Fam. 6.18) See Lex Rubria 45-43 BC.
Rogatio Cornelia de Novis Tabellis
By tribune P. Cornelius Dolabella
while M. Antonius was Caesar's Magister Equitum in Rome (master of horse),
called for total debt relief, essentially in order to free his own debt burdens (Cass.Dio. 42.29) Caused a riot by the plebes and the death of 800. (Plut.
Ant. 9; Livy
Perio. 113; Cass.Dio. 42.32)
Lex Hirtia de Pompeianis
By praetor Aulus Hirtius,
a law that restricted any member of the Pompeius clan from holding a
magistracy. (Cicero, Phil. 13, 16)
Lex Iulia de Modo Credendi Possidendique
By dictator C. Iulius
Caesar, defined the terms of lending money and of holding estates in
Lex Iulia de Provinciis
By dictator C. Iulius
Caesar, limited the term of propraetors to one year, and that of proconsuls
to two consecutive years, and enacted that no one whatever should be
allowed to hold any command for a longer time. (Cass.Dio.
By consul M. Antonius, after the assassination
of Caesar, this transferred Antonius' arranged command in Macedonia
to Cisalpine Gaul and Transalpine Gaul (the province assigned to Decimus
Civ. War. 3.27)
Lex Vibia de Dictatura Tollenda
By consul C. Vibius Pansa, abolished
the office of dictator. (Cass.Dio.
By tribune P. Titius, appointed triumviri
rei publicae constituendae consulari potestate for 5 years, consitutionally
legalizing the triumvirate of M. Antonius, C. Iulius Caesar Octavianus
and M. Aemilius Lepidus. Also legalized massive proscriptions against
political opponents. (Livy
Perio. 120; Cass.Dio.
Foedus de Tarentum
The treaty of Tarentum established peace
with Sext. Pompeius in Sicilia and reconfirmed the second triumvirate
for another 5 years. (Cass.Dio.
Lex Saenia de Plebeiis in Patricios Adlegendis
Enrolled in the ranks of the patricians
such senators as were of the oldest families, and such as had had distinguished
First settlement with C. Iulius Caesar
Octavianus, henceforth known as Augustus. Given proconsular authority
throughout the western provinces and Syria (essentially all the provinces
with legionary presence) and named princeps (first citizen).
Perio. 134; Cass.Dio.53.16;
Gestae Divi Aug.)
Second settlement of Augustus. Granted
tribunicia potestas or the power of the tribune to convene
the senate and the people's assemblies, veto proposed legislation and
oversee elections. Also granted imperium proconsulare maius or
authority over all proconsuls, essentially giving him complete command
of the provinces and legions. This second settlement essentially ended
the Republic, though it's institutions would continue. (Dio.
Cass. 53.31; Res
Gestae Divi Aug.)
Third settlement of Augustus. The plebes
were not fully aware of the changes that the constitution meant for
the power of Augustus. Augustus did not stand for election as consul
in 22, 21 and 19 BC fearing that the senate was attempting to circumvent
the authority of Augustus. They rioted in response and would only elect
one consul in those years in order to reserve a spot for Augustus. In
order to assuage the plebes, the senate granted him the right to wear
the consular insignia permanently in public regardless of whether or
not he actually had been elected as consul. (Dio.
Cass. 54.1, 6,
Gestae Divi Aug. )