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Law Glossary

Legal and Institutional Chronology of the Roman Republic

Legal and Institutional Chronology of the Roman Republic
Emphasis on the "Struggle of the Orders" and Constitutional Politics

Birth of the Republic


Expulsion of the monarchy results in creation of the joint offices of consul. (Originally titled praetor and re-identified as consul with the introduction of the newly defined office of praetor in 367 BC). Elected by the comitia centuriata (which was heavily weighted to the patricians). (Livy 1.60, 2.1)
Lex Valeria de Provocatione

By (consul?) Publius Valerius in order to dispel the notion that he wished to re-establish the monarchy (later received the cognomen Publicola or "people's friend" based on the popularity of this law).

One part established provocatio, or the right for citizens to appeal sentences of death or exile, by standing consuls. It also called for the physical execution along with the forfeiture of all property for any person who sought to establish themselves as king.

"The most popular of these laws were those which granted a right of appeal from the magistrate to the people and devoted to the gods the person and property of any one who entertained projects of becoming king." (Livy 2.8)

508 - 499
Lex Valeria de Aerari?
Introduction of the office of quaestores classici who were responsible for the public treasury (not to be confused with the regal office of quaestores parricidii or public accusers) . Details are uncertain, but it seems to have been introduced by P. Valerius. (Plutarch Pub. 12.2)
Lex De Dictatore Creando

Establishment of the dictatorship as an emergency magistracy requiring a senatus consultum. Titus Larcius Flavus appointed to counter the alliance of Latin towns with the Etruscans against Rome. (Dionysius 5.73), (Livy 2.18)

Struggle of the Orders


The Conquest of Italy


Lex Sacrata
Establishment of the tribunus plebis magistracy to grant political rights and power to the plebes after their first secession from the city. Aedilis plebis magistracy also established. (Livy 2.33)
Lex Icilia de Tribunis Plebis
By the tribune Sp. Icilius, reaffirmed the sacrosanctitas of the tribunis plebis and that interruption of the tribunes while addressing the people's assembly should result in fines. If the fines are refused than the offender should face death and confiscation of property. (Dionys 7.17)
Rogatio Cassia Agraria
By Consul Sp. Cassius Vicellinus, granted land taken from the Hernci to plebes and allies. Rejected by the senate and by the plebes due to the inclusion of the allies. Eventually resulted in the execution of Cassius for treason (pursuing the monarchy). (Livy 2.41)
Rogatio Licinia Agraria
By tribune Sp. Licinius, attempted to force a land grant by opposing a levy of plebes for the war against the Aequi and Veientines. (Livy 2.43)
Rogatio Pontificia Agraria
By tribune Tiberius Pontificius, another defeated attempt to force a land grant by resisting military levies. (Livy 2.44)
Rogatio Fabia Agraria
By consul Caesio Fabius, proposed a land distribution asking the senate to consider distributing land to plebes based from conquered territory in the current wars. (Livy 2.48)
Rogatio Considia et Genucia Agraria
By tribunes Q. Considius and T. Genucius, another defeated attempt to distribute land. (Livy 2.52)
Rogatio Agraria
By unknown tribunes, roused the plebes once again with a defeated agrarian proposal. (Livy 2.54)
Lex Publilia Voleronis de Tribunis Plebis

By tribune Publilius Volero.

Enabled the election of the tribuni plebis through the comitia tributa rather than the comitia centuriata. As the patricii could manipulate the election of the people's tribunes in the comitia through client voting, this law severely curtailed patrician power via the control of the tribunes. (Livy 2.56)

  • Also enabled the election of aediles plebeii through the tributa. (Dionysius 9.49.5)
  • A provision of this law possibly also increased the number of tribunes from 2 to 5 (Livy 2.57, 58)

Elected tribunes increased to 10 In 457 BC (Livy 3.30)

Rogatio Aemilia Agraria
By consul Titus Aemilius, a defeated land grant to the plebes. (Livy 3.1)
Rogatio Aemilia et Fabia Agraria
A joint proposal by both consuls Titus Aemilius and Quinctius Fabius following up on the individual rogatio of T. Aemilius above, a reworked agrarian law that created a colony and distributed land near Antium. Met with disinterest by the plebes despite senatorial approval. (Livy 3.1)
Rogatio Terentilia
By tribune C. Terentilius Harsa, this proposed a committee of five to investigate laws to regulate the power of the consuls. Eventually resulted in the establishment of the twelve tables (450 BC). (Livy 3.9-10, 32)
Lex Icilia de Aventino Publicando
By plebeian L. Icilius, it allotted land on the Aventine to plebeians. Livy suggests that this also preserved tribunician authority and was passed as a concession to exclude plebeians from the decemvirate committee for the tabulation of the twelve tables (Livy 3.31, 32), (Dionys 10.32)
Lex Aternia et Tarpeia de Multis
By the consuls Sp. Tarpeius and A. Aternius, allowed all magistrates to fine citizens who resisted their authority, though the amount of the fine varies according to the sources. (Cicero De Republica II.35, Dionys. 10.50; Gellius 11.1.4)
Duodecim Tabularum
(Twelve Tables)

First official codification of Roman private and public law. Initial proposition (Rogatio Terentilia) in 462 BC established the Decemviri Legibus Scribendis to research and write these laws. The first 10 tables were completed in 450. The final two tables were enacted in 449 BC.

The tables (general subject matter):

  • Table I (Civil procedure)
  • Table II (Civil procedure)
  • Table III (Debt)
  • Table IV (Parents and children)
  • Table V (Inheritance)
  • Table VI (Property)
  • Table VII (Real Property)
  • Table VIII (Torts)
  • Table IX (Constitutional principles)
  • Table X (Funeral regulations)
  • Table XI (Marriage... forbid marriage between Plebes and Patricians)
  • Table XII (Crimes)

Lengthy source information

Lex Duilia de Provocatione
By the tribune M. Duillius: anyone who should leave the plebs without tribunes, or who should create a magistrate from whom there was no appeal, should be scourged and beheaded. (Livy 3.55)
Lex Valeria et Horatia de Plebiscitum

By (consuls or decemvirs?) L. Valerius Potitus and M. Horatius Barbatus, a series of laws passed to restore and define rights of tribunes in response to second plebeian secession.

Validated plebescita requiring ratification by auctoritas patrum [made laws passed in the comitia tributa (tribal assembly) binding on all people subject to approval in either the Senate or more likely the comitia curiata (patrician assembly)]. The later Leges Publiliae (339 BC) and Lex Hortensia (287 BC) redefined the procedure and/or the restrictions.) (Livy 3.55, 67)

Lex Valeria et Horatia de Provocatio
Confirmed provocatio (or the right to appeal sentences of death), and re-established the sacrosanctitas of the Tribunes. (Livy 3.55, 67)
Lex Valeria et Horatia de Aedilis?
Orders senatus consulta (resolutions of the Senate) or decreta (consular decrees) be stored in temple of Ceres under care of plebeian aediles.(Livy 3.55)
Lex Trebonia de Tribunis Plebis
Proposed by tribune L. Trebonius, enacted that if the ten tribunes were not chosen before the comitia was dissolved, those who were elected should not fill up the number, but that the comitia should be continued until all ten were elected (Livy 3.65, 5.10)
Lex Canuleia de Conubio Patrum et Plebis

By tribune C. Canuleius, it allowed marriage between patricians and plebeians (previously restricted by table 11.1 of the "Twelve Tables".)

Canuleius also proposed the eligibility of plebes to the office of consul, but in order to prevent this the constitution was altered by the patricians to allow for the election of tribuni militum cum consulari potestate (military tribunes with consular power) as opposed to consuls. Over the period of the 78 years, either consuls or military tribunes could be elected to lead the government depending on circumstances. (Regarding intermarriage Livy 4.1) (regarding the consular tribunes Livy 4.6-7)

First election of the tribuni militum cum consulari potestate (military tribunes with consular power) Aulus Sempronius Atratinus, L. Atilius, and T. Caecilius. (Livy 4.6-7)
Re-establishment of the office of censor (patrician only until 351) - L. Papirius Mugillanus and L. Sempronius Atratinus appointed (consuls had performed this duty since the inception of the office in 509). (Livy 4.8)
Rogatio Poetilia Agraria
By the tribune Poetilius, a failed attempt at the division of territory. (Livy 4.12)
Rogatio Maelia Agraria
By tribune Sp. Maelius, attempted to confiscate the property of Servilius Ahala for executing another Sp. Maelius for sedition without trial (Livy 4.13-21)
Lex Aemilia de Censoribus
By dictator Mamercus Aemilius, limited term of office for censor to 18 months. (Livy 4.24)
Lex Pinaria et Furia et Postumia

By the tribunes L. Pinarius Mamercus, L. Furius Medullinus, and Sp. Postumius Albus, an election canvassing law that made the whitening of a toga for candidates illegal. (Livy 4.25)

Quote Livy "To us now the matter may appear trivial and hardly worth serious discussion, but it kindled a tremendous conflict between patricians and plebeians."

Lex Iulia et Papiria de Multarum Aestimatione
By consuls L. Papirius Crassus and L. Iulius, fixed the cost of fines. (Livy 4.30; Cicero de Rep. II.60)
Rogatio Agraria
A proposed division of division of public land and the formation of colonies. Money was to be raised for the payment of soldiers by a tax on the occupiers of the public land. (Livy 4.43; referring to the criteria established in Livy 4.36 dating from 424.)
In the consulships of N. Fabius Vibulanus and T. Quinctius Capitolinus Barbatus, quaestors increased from 2 to 4 and the magistracy opened to plebes. (Livy 4.43)
Rogatio Agraria
A failed agrarian law that had the alternative motive of taking consular tribune A. Sempronius Atratinus (patrician) to trial on grounds of illegally preventing plebes from holding higher office. (Livy 4.44)
Lex Agraria de Labici?
In the year of consular tribunes Lucius Sergius Fidenas, M. Papirius Mugilanus, and C. Servilius, following the dictatorshop of Q. Servilius Priscus, the senate decreed that 1,500 colonists should be sent to the newly conquered lands of the Labici with 2 iugera of land each. (Livy 4.47)
Rogatio Maecilia et Metilia Agraria
By tribunes Sp. Maecilius and M. Metilius. A creative and dangerous attempt at an agrarian law. Per Livy "They brought forward a measure providing that the territory taken from an enemy should be assigned to individual owners. If this were passed the fortunes of a large number of the nobility would be confiscated. For as the City itself was founded upon foreign soil, it possessed hardly any territory which had not been won by arms, or which had become private property by sale or assignment beyond what the plebeians possessed." (Livy 4.48)
Rogatio Sextia Agraria
In the year of consular tribunes P. Cornelius Cossus, C. Valerius Potitus, Q. Quinctius Cincinnatus, and N. Fabius Vibulanus, by tribune L. Sextius, attempted to send colonists to Bolae in the same manner as Labici in 418. (Livy 4.49)
Rogatio Icilia Agraria
By tribune L. Icilius, various failed and undetailed agrarian proposals (Livy 4.52). Though they can be presumably related to the colonization of Bolae and the ejection of patricians from public lands as provided in Livy 4.51.
Rogatio Maenia Agraria
By tribune M. Menenius, attempted to force an agrarian law by withholding plebeian levies in the war with the Aequi and Volscians. (Livy 4.53)
4th - 3rd Cent.
Lex Pinaria de Legis Actiones
Of uncertain origin, it related to the appointment of judges in cases of lawsuits. (Gaius. Inst. 4.15)
Rogatio Trebonia Agraria
By tribune Cn. Trebonius, an attempt to squeeze through a land distribution after bringing consular tribunes to trial for selecting tribunis plebis without a vote of the comitia (per the Lex Trebonia of 448 BC). (Livy 5.10-11)
Lex de Civitate Agraria?
Incorporated the residents of Veii, Capenae, and Fidenae who assisted Rome in the wars of M. Furius Camillus as citzens. (Livy 6.4)
Rogatio Agraria
An attempt to distribute land in Pomptine territory (captured from the Volscians) was not supported by the plebes due to pre-occupation with the Lex de Civitate above. (Livy 6.4-5)

Lex Licinia Sextia or Leges Liciniae Sextiae

By tribunes C. Licinius Stolo and L. Sextius Sextinus Lateranus. Original proposal in 375 BC failed, but in retaliation the tribunes managed to prevent any magisterial election (except for tribunes and aediles in the comitia tributa) for the next 5 years while also securing their own re-elections in this same time period. (Livy 6.35)

The law provided for these major issues:

  • Restored the consulship and the abolition of military tribunes (see Lex Canuleia above). Also opened the consulship to plebes, the first of which was one of the tribunes who proposed the law, L. Sextius Sextinus. (Some scholarship suggests the existence of plebeian names in the office of consul prior to this point, but there may be confusion over the office of the military tribunate with consular powers which did allow for plebeian office-holders).
  • Limited the amount of ager publicus (public land) that any individual could own to 500 iugera, curtailing economic power of patricians. (Livy 6.35) The evidence is unclear but it would seem that any excess land was distributed among the plebes. (Varro de Re Rust. 1.2, Columella de Re Rust. 1.3.9). In relation to the public land, the law probably limited the amount of livestock that could be kept on that land.
  • Reformed plebeian debt. (Livy 6.36)
  • Established the new patrician offices of praetura (praetor, later praetor urbanus) and aediles curules (though both were later opened to plebes... 337 BC for praetors and almost immediately after creation for aediles). (Livy 6.42)
Lex Poetelia de Ambitu
Proposed by tribune C. Poetelius, it prohibited ambitus. Essentially it forbade candidates canvassing on market days, and soliciting votes in places in the country where people gathered. The law mainly checked the growing political potential of rich plebeian novi homines (new men) who had advantages with voters outside the city. (Livy 7.15)
Lex Manlia de Vicesima Manumissionum
By consul Cnaeus Manlius, unprecedented action in getting a law passed in military camp by the tribes, it levied 5 percent on the value of every slave who was manumitted. As the money raised under this law was considerable to the exhausted treasury, the senate confirmed it. (Livy 7.16)
Lex (Comitia Tributa?)
The tribunes of the plebs, in direct response to the Lex Manlia above, made it a capital offense for any one to convene the comitia tributa outside their usual place of meeting. (Livy 7.16)
Lex Duilia et Memnenia de Unciario Fenore
By tribunes M. Duilius and L. Menenius, fixed the rate interest rate at 8 1/3 per cent. (Livy 7.16)
Appointment of C. Marcius Rutilus (consul 357) as the first plebeian dictator (Livy 7.17)
Election of C. Marcius Rutilus as the first plebeian censor (Livy 7.22)
Lex Genucia or Leges Genuciae

By tribune L. Genucius, several measures including:

  • de Feneratione: Banned lending at interest (certainly a law that was later ignored or abandoned) (Livy 7.42, Appian Civ. War. 1.54)
  • Forbid anyone to accept re-election to the same office in less than ten years or fill two offices in the same year
  • (Livy 7.42)
  • Allowed for both elected consuls to be plebeian (first time this actually occurred was in 172 BC) (The consular fasti from this point forward also suggests that this law required one consul to be plebeian as well, but Livy does not report this in his narrative. (Livy 7.42)
Leges Publiliae Philonis de Plebiscitis

By plebeian dictator Q. Publilius Philo (part of the law is difficult to differentiate from that of the Lex Valeria Horatia from 449 BC):

  • Required one of two appointed censors to be plebeian. (Livy 8.12).
  • Legislation put to vote in the comitia centuriata (assembly of the centuries or all the citizens) had to be previously approved by the comitia curiata (patrician assembly) but effectively cancelled the patrician right to veto legislation by the people. (Livy 8.12)
First plebeian praetor elected - Q. Publilius Philo (after having already held the offices of dictator and consul per above). (Livy 8.15)
Lex Papiria de Civitate Acerranorum
By praetor L. Papirius, by which the rights of citizenship were conferred on the inhabitants of Acerrae. (Livy 8.17)
Lex Poetelia Papiria de Nexis

By consul C. Poetelius against the actions of a money-lender by name of L. Papirius:

According to Livy, a "new era of liberty for plebes" as debt-slavery was eliminated: "No man (shall) be kept in irons or in the stocks, except such as have been guilty of some crime, and then only until they have worked out their sentence; and, further, that the goods and not the person of the debtor shall be the security for the debt." (Livy 8.28)

Lex Ovinia de Senatus Lectione
Of uncertain date and origin, it gave the censors certain powers in regulating the lists of the senators (ordo senatorius): the main object seems to have been to exclude all improper persons from the senate, and to prevent their admission, if in other respects qualified. (Festus, s.v. Praeteriti Senatores; Cicero de Leg. III.12)
Lex Atilia et Marcia de Tribunis Militum
By tribunes L. Atilius and C. Marcius, regarding the office of the military tribune; sixteen were to be appointed by the people for the four legions; previously appointed by consuls. (Livy 9.30)
Lex Sulpicia et Sempronia
By consuls P. Sulpicius Saverrio and P. Sempronius Sophus, this authorized a measure providing that no one could dedicate a temple or an altar without being ordered to do so by the senate or by a majority of the tribunes of the plebs. (In response to the people urging the Pontifex Maximus Cornelius Barbatus to dedicate the Concord on the Vulcanal without pre-approval of the Senate). (Livy 9.46)
Lex Ogulnia de Auguribus et Pontificibus

By tribunes Q. Ogulnius Gallus and Cn. Gallus, this law increased the number of pontifices to eight and that of the augurs to nine; for the first time plebeians were eligible. Four of the nine pontifices and five of the augurs were to be plebes. (Livy 10, 6-9)

Lex Valeria de Provocatione
By consul M. Valerius Maximus Corvus. Seemingly re-affirmed and strengthened the original Leges Valeriae of 509 and 449 BC that provided for the right of appeal in capital sentences. (Livy 10.9)
3rd Cent.
Lex Vallia de Manus Iniectione
Of uncertain date and origin, it provided for a defendant to resist physical arrest of a creditor in cases regarding repayment of debt. (Gaius. Inst. 4.25)
3rd - 2nd Cent.
Lex Publilia de Sponsu
Of uncertain date and origin, it regarded the recovery of loaned debt for sponsors of a debtor. (Gaius. Inst. 3.127, 4.22)
Lex Maenia
Probably proposed by the tribune Maenius. Much like the Leges Publiliae of 339 BC regarding the approval of centuriate legislation, this law required the senate or patrician assembly to approve and grant imperium to any plebe elected by the centuries. (Cicero; Brutus, 14, Livy 1.17)
Lex Hortensia

Proposed by the plebeian dictator Quintus Hortensius effectively ending the "struggle of the orders".

Allowed that plebiscites passed in the tribal assembly carried the force of law and applied to all citizens, including patricians without approval. (Gaius; Institutes 1.3, Gellius; Attic Nights 15.27.4)

The Pyrrhic War


The Punic Wars


Number of quaestors doubled to 8. (Livy Epit. 15)
Office of praetor peregrinus established (original sole praetor further defined as urbanus). (Livy Epit. 19)
Lex Hieronica Frumentaria
Adaption of the traditional law by king Hiero of Syracuse, regulated the Roman taxation (including grain) of Sicily. (Cicero, Verr. II.13, 26)
232 or 228
Lex Flaminia Agraria
Proposed by tribune Gaius Flaminius. Distributed land formerly held by the Senones to Roman citizens. (Cicero Acad. II.5, De Senect. IV, Polybius 2.21) (Polybius suggests 232 but Cicero is likely more accurate at 228)
Two additional praetors added for the administration of Sicily and Sardinia. (Livy Epit. 20)
Lex Claudia de Senatoribus

By tribune Q. Claudius, with the support of consul elect (for 217) C. Flaminius Nepos, stated that no senator or senator’s son could own a sea-going ship with a capacity of more than 300 amphorae (roughly 7 tons). It was intended to restrict profit on overseas trading by members of the senate. (Livy 21.63)

Lex Minucia de Triumviris Mensariis
By tribune M. Minucius, appointmented three treasury officials. (Livy 23.21)
Lex Oppia
By tribune C. Oppius, imposed restrictions on women's dress, ownership of gold, and use of horse-drawn vehicles. This was the first of several leges sumptuariae (sumptuary laws) regarding moral conduct, it was repealed in 195 BC. (Val. Max. 9.13)
Lex Licinia de Ludis Apollinaribus
By praetor P. Licinius Varus proposed a measure to the people providing that the games of Apollo should always be celebrated on the same day (July 5). (Livy 27.23)
Lex Cincia de Muneralis
By tribune M. Cincius Alimentus, entitled a trial advocate to take gifts in order to prosecute or defend a case. (Cicero de Orat. II.71, ad Att. 1.20; Livy 34.4)
Lex Furia Testamentaria
Uncertain date and origin, it restricted the amount of property that could be willed to a non-traditional heir. (Gaius Inst. 2.224, 225, 4.23, 24; Cicero in Verr. I.43)
Lex Porcia (Laeca?)
By tribune P. Porcius Laeca; re-affirmed right of appeal (provocatio) in capital cases. (References are difficult to discern and are confusing with the additional Leges Porciae that follows below... this particular law seems to have been evidenced through numismatic confirmation... the "libertas" coin of moneyer L. Porcius c.125 BC. Also Cicero de Repub II.54)
199 - 126?
Lex Aebutia de Formulis
Abolished the legis actiones trial system and introduced formulary procedure (Gaius Inst. 4.30)
Lex Porcia de Provinciis
Likely by (praetor?) M. Porcius Cato Major (or at least heavily sponsored by him). This law dealt with provincial corruption and restrictions on money-lending by provincial governors. (Livy 32.27, Cicero Verr. II.4, 5)
198 - 184
Lex Porcia de Tergo Civium

Proposed by M. Porcius Cato Major (praetor 198, consul 195), this (provocatio) law prohibited scourging of citizens without appeal. (Livy 10.9; Cicero de Repub II.31, pro Rabir. III, 4; Sallust Cat 51.21) (Dates are not definitive, perhaps later propositions by consul L. Porcius Licinus 184 BC)

Election of two additional praetors for the administration of Hispania. (Livy 32.27)
Lex Licinia de Creandis Triumviris Epulonibus
By tribune C. Licinius Lucullus, created the priestly office of the epulones. They arranged feasts and public banquets at festivals and games. Initially 3 were selected but this grew to 7. Open to plebes and patricians. (Livy 33.42)
Lex Valeria et Fundania de Dege Oppia Abroganda
By tribunes M. Fundanius and L. Valerius, this repealed the Lex Oppia of 215 BC. (Livy 34.1-8)
Lex Sempronia de Pecunia Credita
By tribune M. Sempronius, authorized debts contracted with members of the Latin and allied communities to be regulated by the same laws as those contracted with Roman citizens (Livy 35.7)
Lex Baebia de Praetoribus
By tribune M. Baebius Tamphilus?, suggested that 4 and 6 praetors should be chosen in alternate years (Livy 40.44) but this was largely ignored (though it did occur at least in 180).
Lex Acilia de Intercalando
By consul M'. Acilius Glabrio, regulated the calendar. (Macrob. Sat. 1.13)
Lex Orchia
A sumptuary law proposed by tribune C. Orchius that limited the number of guests that could be invited for various entertainments. (Cato Orig VII.12-14, Macrobius; Saturnalia 17.3)
Lex Cornelia et Baebia de Ambitu
By consuls P. Cornelius Cethegus and M. Baebius Tamphilus, concerned election canvassing and bribery. (Livy 40.19)
Lex Villia Annalis

Proposed by tribune L. Villius Annalis, it set the standards for the political stages of the cursus honorum:

  • Set the minimum ages for the curule magistracies (those that held imperium): curule aediles 36, praetor 39, consul 42 (ages in the year of office)
  • Set the minimum age for quaestor at 30.
  • Required a 1 year gap between service in one magistracy and election to the magistracy of the next level above. (ie a praetor for the year 180 could not be consul until 178)
  • Required a 10 year interval between election to successive consular magistracies. (Livy 40.44; Tac. Ann 11.22; Appian Pun. War. 112; Hisp. 84; Cicero de off. II.17.59, ad Fam. X.25.2, Phil. V.17.47)
Lex Claudia de Sociis et Nomine Latinis
By consul C. Claudius Pulcher, made it illegal for any person to adopt or manumit Latin citizens with the view of changing his citizenship, and also required those who had become Roman citizens by this means to renounce their citizenship. (Livy 41.8-9)
Lex Licinia et Cassia
By consuls P. Licinius Crassus, C. Cassius Longinus, permitted consuls and praetors to appoint military tribunes (tribuni militum). (Livy 42.31)
Lex Voconia de Mulierum Hereditatibus

Proposed by tribune Q. Voconius Saxa and supported by Cato Major, this law attempted to limit the amount of property that could be willed to female heirs, though it was generally avoidable through various loopholes. (Cicero Verrus II.1, de Rep III.17, Gellius 20.1, Dio Cass. 56.10)

Lex Fannia Sumptuaria
Proposed by the consul C. Fannius Strabo, this sumptuary law limited the amount of expenditures festivals and entertainment. (Gellius 2.24; Macrobius. Sat. 3.17; Pliny Nat. Hist. 10.50)
Leges Aelia et Fufia

Provided the right of obnuntiatio. Any curule magistrate or tribune could prevent or disband assemblies of the comitia by declaring various omens as unfavorable. This was effective until repealed by the Leges Clodiae of tribune P. Clodius in 58 BC. (Cicero Phil. II.32, pro Sestio 15, ad Att. II.9)

Lex Aebutia de Magistratibus Extraordinem
Forbade the proposer of an extraordinary magistracy from being elected to the office. (Cicero in Rull. II.8, Domo. 20)
Lex Calpurnia de Repetundis
By tribune L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi, this established a permanent court (quaestio perpetua) overseen by an appointed praetor to monitor the acquisition of money by provincials governors and magistrates abroad. (Cic. de Off. II.21, Brut. 27)

The Gracchi




Lex Gabinia Tabellaria
Proposed by tribune A. Gabinius, it provided for magisterial election by ballot rather than open voting in the comitia. (Cicero de Leg. III.35, Livy Perio. 54, Pliny Epistulae 3.20)
Lex Cassia Tabellaria
Another Leges Taballaria by tribune L. Cassius Longinus. Much like the Gabinia above, this introduced voting by secret ballot in the courts of law, except for cases of treason. (Cicero Sestio 103, Leg. III.35-37, Brut. 97, 106, Acad. II.13, Amic.41)
Lex Sempronia Agraria

By tribune Ti. Sempronius Gracchus, this intended to distribute Ager Publica (public land) among the poorest plebes. Additionally, the plebes receiving such land were to pay small rents and were required not to vacate said land for a length of year (though the exact number is uncertain). The lex Licinia Sextia that limited ownership of land to 500 iugera was also upheld which proved a difficult process due to the great tracts of land that had already been purchased, sold, inherited, developed, etc. A commission of 3 men, Tiberius Gracchus, his brother Caius Gracchus and Appius Claudius were appointed to oversee the process, which ultimately resulted in the assassination of Ti. Gracchus. (Cicero Leg.Agr. II.10, Sest 103; Diod. Sicc. 34.7; Livy Perio. 58; Vell. Pat. 2.2; Plut. Tib.Gracc. 13; Appian Civ. War 1.12-13)

Edictum Rupilia de Sicilia?
By proconsul P. Rupilius (consul 132). Reorganized the administration of Sicily after the first servile war. (Cicero in Verr. II.13, 15, 16, 37)
Lex Papiria Tabellariae
Proposed by the tribune C. Papirius Carbo, introduced the ballot in the enactment and repeal of laws (Cic. de Leg. III.16)
Rogatio Papiria de Tribunis Plebis Reficiendis
Proposed by the tribune C. Papirius Carbo, attempted to allow a candidate to be elected tribune as often as they wished without interruption. Defeated through the opposition of P. Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus Africanus. (Livy Perio. 59; Cicero De am. 25, 96, De Or. II.40)
131 or 102
Lex Atinia
By tribune C. Atinius (131 BC) or C. Atinius Labeo (102 BC), admitted plebeian tribunes to the senate. (Gell. 14.8.2)
Lex Iunia de Peregrinis

By tribune M. Iunius Pennus, it banished peregrini (non citizens) from the city who had falsely claimed citizenship. Essentially proposed to counteract an initiative by consul Fulvius Flaccus to provide citizenship to the same. Related to the growing dissatisfaction of the Italians as subjects rather than equals. (Val. Max. 9.5, Appian Civ. War 1.21, 1.34)


Leges Semproniae

By tribune Caius Gracchus, proposed a series of laws:

  • de Capite Civium: prohibited the execution of Roman citizens without a trial (Cicero pro Rab.Perd. 12, Cat. 4, Red. Sen. 37-38, Red. Pop. 6, Domo 82, 87, de Rep. 1, Leg. III, Brut.128; Diod. Sic. 34.26; Vell Pat. 2.7; Plut: C. Gracc. 4)
  • Agraria: proposed incorporation of all Italians as citizens and distributed public land on a grander scale than that of the Lex Agraria of 133. (Livy Perio. 60; Vell. Pat. 2.6; Plut.C. Gracc 5; Florus 2.3)
  • de Militum?: ordained that clothing should be furnished to the soldiers at the public cost, that nothing should be deducted from their pay to meet this charge, and that no one under seventeen should be enrolled as a soldier.
  • de Frumentaria: introduction of a grain dole for the poor that fixed the prices of grain at less than market value. (Livy Periochae 60; Appian Civ. War 1.21; Plut. C. Gracc., 5; Vell. Pat. 2.6; Cicero. pro Sext. 48)
  • de Iudicia: transferred the authority of judges in criminal courts from senators to equestrians. (Diod. Sicc. 34.25, 37.9; Livy Per. 60; Vell. Pat. 2.6, 2.13; Pliny Nat. Hist. 33, Plut. C. Grac. 5-6; Florus 2.5; Appian Civ. War 1.22)
  • de Provinciis Consularibus: enacted, that in every year, before the comitia for electing the consuls, the senate should determine the two provinces which the consuls should have; and the consuls were to settle between themselves by lot. (Cicero Dom. IX.24, de prov. coss. II.3; 7.7; Sall. Jug. 27)
  • de Provincii Asiatica?: regulated the taxation of provinces, specifically Asia Minor, to prevent corruption. (Cicero Verr. II.3; Diod. Sicc. 35.25)
  • de Coitionis?: a law against judicial conspiracy. (Cicero Clus. 151, 154)
Lex Acilia Repetundarum
By tribune M.' Acilius Glabrio, reformed the quaestio de repetundis (court for the recovery of property) enacted in the Lex Calpurnia of 149 BC. This court penalized extortion by senate magistrates and was overseen by the equites. Likely related to the Lex Sempronia of C. Gracchus above. (Cicero Verr. I, 2.1)
Lex Fannia
By consul C. Fannius, contained the same provisions as the Iunia de Peregrinis in regards to the Latini and Italici. Essentially an attempt to negate the vote for proposed Gracchan legislation. (Plut. C. Gracc.12; Appian Civ. War 1.23)
Lex Maria Tabellaria
By tribune C. Marius, a voting law that restricted the size of passages to ballot boxes probably in order to reduce corruption/bribery and insure free voting. (Cicero Leg. III; Plut. Marius 4)
Lex Octavia Frumentaria
By tribune M. Octavius, this modified the frumentaria law of Gracchus (regarding the grain dole) to ease the burden on the treasury. He probably either raised the price of the corn, or reduced the size of the distribution to each citizen (Cicero Brut. 222, de Off. II.21)
Lex Aemilia Sumtuaria
Possibly by consul M. Aemilius Scaurus (or by Aemilius Lepidus in 78 BC, but there were possibly two related laws passed in both years), this limited the kind and quantity of food that was to be used in festivals/entertaining. (Pliny Nat. Hist. 8.223; Gell. 2.24)
Lex Thoria Agraria
By tribune Spurius Thorius, repealed the Gracchan law distributing public land, but allowed those who had already taken possession to keep said land. Rents due the state for such land was to be distributed to the poor. (Cic De Orat. II, 284, Brut. 136; Appian Civ. War 1.27)
Lex Mamilia
By tribune C. Mamilius, appointed arbiters to clarify disputes between landlords. (Cicero Leg. 1'55)
Lex Caelia Tabellaria
By tribune C. Caelius Caldus, modified the Lex Cassia of 137 BC and establishes voting by secret ballot in cases of treason (perduellio). (Cicero Rhet. I.25, IV.34 Leg. III.36; Orosius 5.15)
Lex Servilia Iudicaria
By consul Q. Servilius Caepio, temporarily returned some control of quaestio de repetundis (property courts, relating largely to extortion) to the senate rather than equites (Cicero Clus. 140, Orat. I.225, II.199, Brut. 43, 44, 63, 86, 161, 164)
Lex Cassia
By tribune L. Cassius Longinus, it excluded from the senate persons deprived of imperium by popular vote (iudicium populi). (Ascon. 78)
104 or 101
Lex Servilia Glaucia de Repetundis
By tribune C. Servilius Glaucia. Seems to have repealed the Lex Servilia of 106. This restored control of the property courts to the equites. It also introduced comperindinatio which allowed for a two day adjournment of procedures. Exile was a penalty for conviction and monetary fines were increased. Any non citizen who successfully brought charges against a defendant would be given citizenship. (Cicero Brut. 62, 224, Verr. I.9, II.1, pro Balbo, 23, 24, 54)
Lex Domitia de Sacerdotiis
By tribune Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, it transferred the right of electing the members of the 4 colleges of priests from the priests themselves directly to the people (probably in the comitia tributa). (Cicero Leg. Agr. II.7, Epist. ad Brut. I.5; Vell. Pat. 2.12.3; Suet. Nero 2)
Lex Appuleia Agraria et Frumentaria

By tribune L. Appuleius Saturninus, provided settlement for Marius' veterans. The law included a clause that required the senate to swear an oath to uphold this law prior to it being put to the people for vote which was contested (Metellus Numidicus in particular). While the law carried, public violence and the demagoguery of Saturninus resulted in the law being nulled. (Cic Leg 2.14; Livy Per. 69; Plut. Marius 29, Crassus 2; Appian Civ. War. 1.29-30) There was also a law regarding the grain dole (frumentaria) (Cicero. Rhet. ad Her. I,12)

Lex Calidia de Revocando Q. Caecilio Metello
Recalled Metellus Numidicus from exile after the death of Saturninus. (Appian Civ. War. 33)



The Order of Sulla


Lex Caecilia et Didia
By the consuls Q. Caecilius Metellus Nepos and T. Didius. Required the passage of 3 nundinae (market days) between public declaration of a proposed law and the actual vote of the people. Also forbade the practice of lex satura, or the combination of several different laws in a single proposal. (Cicero Phil. V.8, pro Domo, 16, 20, 41, 53 ad Att. II.9)
Lex Licinia Mucia Civilibus Regundis
By consuls L. Licinius Crassus and Q. Mucius Scaevola Pontifex, created a quaestio (committee) to investigate Italians who had recently and likely illegally enrolled as citizens. Initiated the Marsic or Social War. (Cicero Balb. 48-49, 54, De Or II.257, Brut 63, Off III.47; Sall. Hist. 1)
Edictum Lician et Domitia de Rhetoribus?
An edict by the censors Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus et L. Licinius Crassus, banned schools of rhetoric at Rome. (Cicero DeOr. 3'93; Tac. Dial. 35'1; Suet. Rhet. 1; Gellius 15.11)
Lex Minicia de Conubium
Ordered that children born of parents of mixed status civitatis receive lower status. (Gaius Inst.1.78)
Leges Liviae

By the tribune M. Livius Drusus Minor, a series of laws including:

  • de Frumentaria et Agraria: regarded the grain dole and the distribution of land in new colonies.
  • de Iuidiciara?: addressed the combination of senators and equites as court judges.
  • de Senatum ex Equestri Ordine: sought to enroll 300 qualified equites as senators.
  • Rogatio de Foederatae Civitates: dealt with the incorporation of Italian allies into the citizenship--not passed into law, see below

(Diod. Sicc. 37.2; Livy Per. 71; Appian Civ. War 1.35; Vell. Pat. 2.14; Cicero Clu. 153, Rab. Post.16).

Though these proposals did pass into law (save for the de Foederatae Civitates which was in process at the time of Drusus' murder) they did so only with fierce opposition. Social upheaval led to the assassination of Drusus and his laws were revoked on the grounds of contra auspicia (passed after bad omens declared any attempted legislation as invalid). (Cicero Dom. 41, 50, Leg II.14, 31; Diod. Sicc. 37.10)

Lex Varia de Maiestate
By the tribune Quintus Varius, a law to bring prosecution to any citizens who openly or secretly aided the Italians to acquire citizenship. (Appian Civ. War 37)
Lex Iulia De Civitate
By consul L. Iulius Caesar, granted Roman citizenship to the Socii and Latinii. (Cicero Balb. 21; Livy Per. 80; Strabo 5.241; Vell. Pat. 2.16; Appian Civ. War 1.49)
Lex Plautia (Plotia) de Vi(s)
By tribune M. Plautius Silvanus, made public acts of violence illegal. Essentially enacted to reduce mob influence on magistrates. (Suet. Caes. 5; Gell., 13.3; Sall. Cat. 31)
Lex Plautia Iudicaria
By tribune M. Plautius Silvanus, selected 15 people (completely disregarding wealth or social rank) from each of the Roman tribes to act as annual judges in the criminal trials. (Asconius 79). Later repealed in the series of Leges Corneliae by Sulla.
Lex Plautia et Papiria de Civitate
By tribunes M. Plautius Silvanus and C. Papirius Carbo, granted further citizenship rights to Italian allies. Full citizenship was given to any who were living in Italy at the time the law was passed and provided they give their name to the praetor urbanus at Rome. (Cicero Rhet. 3, Arch. 7; Vell. Pat. 2.17)
Lex Papiria de Asse Semunciali
By tribune C. Papirius Carbo, as a condition of citizenship granted in the previous lex above (de Civitate), put an end to the coinage of bronze in the few confederate towns in Italy which were still coining in their own names, Paestum alone was excepted. (Pliny Nat. Hist. 33.13)
Lex Pompeia de Civitate
By consul Cn. Pompeius Strabo, legally created the province of Cisalpine Gaul by granting citizenship (civitas) and granted Latin rights (latinitas) on Transalpine Gaul. (Asconius 3; Pliny Nat. Hist. 3)
Leges Sulpiciae

By tribune Publius Sulpicius Rufus, proposed several laws that challenged constitutional standards at the behest of C. Marius and through the use of mob violence.

  • de Novorum Civium Libert. Suffragiis: Authorized the distribution new Italian citizens and the libertini among the thirty-five tribes in order to increase the voting power of the Marian faction. (Livy Perio. 77; Ascon. 64; Plut: Sulla 8; Appian Civ. War 1.55)
  • Revocando Exsilium?: Recalled political exiles. (Cicero Rhet II.45; Livy Perio.77)
  • Set the maximum debt that a senator could be obligated for at less than 2,000 denarii. (Plut. Sulla 8)
  • Transferred the consular command against Mithridates from the the authority of standing consul L. Cornelius Sulla to privitas (private citizen) C. Marius.(Cicero Phil. VIII.7; Vell. Pat. 2.18; Val. Max. 9.7; Plut. Sulla 8, Marius 35; Florus 2.9; Appian Civ. War 1.56)

The senate attempted a iustitium (cessation of public business) to circumvent the vote but the mob violence of the Marians and personal threats against any opposition forced the senate to withdraw the justitium, allowing the passage of all the proposals. This in turn, prompted Sulla to march on Rome with his army in defiance of the Marians.

Leges Corneliae et Pompeiae

By the consuls L. Cornelius Sulla and Q. Pompeius Rufus after taking control of Rome by force:

  • Sulpicia de Abrogatio: Annulled all the recently passed laws of Sulpicius on the grounds that they were passed after the legal justitium (cessation of business) of the senate.
  • de Proscriptione: Exiled and proscribed members of the Marian faction including Sulpicius, Marius, his son Marius, Publius Cethegus, Iunius Brutus, Gnaeus and Quintus Granius, Publius Albinovanus and Marcus Laetorius.
  • Hortensia de Abrogatio?: Overturned various aspects of the Lex Valeria et Horatia of 449 BC, the Leges Publilae of 339 or the Lex Hortensia of 287, reintroducing senatorial debate as requirement before any proposal could be brought before the people. Also voting was to be by the comitia centuriate rather than the comitia tributa, effectively restoring election/voting supremacy to the patricians and wealthy nobiles.
  • de Tribinus Plebis?: reduced the power of the tribunes (further defined or perhaps not even addressed until the Leges Corneliae of 81 BC)
  • Enrolled 300 new senators
Edictum? Mariae et Corneliae

Following the reciprocal march on Rome by Marius and Cinna after Sulla's departure for the Mithridatic War:

  • Enacted retributional proscriptions against members of the Sullan political faction.
  • Named Marius and Cinna consuls for 86 BC without legitimate election (Cinna's 2nd of 4 consecutive terms-87 to 84 BC and Marius' unprecedented 7th term from 107 to 86 BC) (Appian Civ. War 71-75; Vell. Pat . 22; Livy Perio. 80)
Lex Valeria
By consul suffectus L. Valerius Flaccus, cancelled 1/4 of personal debts. (Vell. Pat. 23; Sall. Cat. 33)
Edictum Gratidiana de Re Nummaria
By Praetor M. Marius Gratidianus, a popular edict fixed the weight of silver coinage in order to prevent rampant fraud. (Pliny 33.46) A nephew of C. Marius, Gratidianus was later murdered by Sergius Catilina in the proscriptions of Sulla. (Plut. Sulla 32)
Decretum de Civitate? or Lex Cornelia de Civitate
Restored the rights of citizens expelled by Cinna. Freedmen are enrolled as citizens and distributed in the 35 tribes via senatorial decree. (Livy Perio. 84) Perhaps this entry is confirmation of the broader scope Leges Corneliae detailed in 81 BC below.
Lex Cornelia de Civitate?
Sulla incorporates inhabitants of Spain, Gaul and Sicily with Roman citizenship. (Cicero Balb. 50, Pro Arch. 25, Pro Verrus 2.4)
Leges Corneliae
By dictator (first dictator appointed in 120 years) L. Cornelius Sulla Felix, various reforms to restore senatorial power along with numerous public policies.
  • de Proscriptione: massive proscriptions and confiscations of Marian political opponents (Cicero Rosc.Am. 16, Clu. 161; Sall. Cat. 11, 51; Diod. Sicc. 38; Livy Perio. 88; Vell. Pat. 2.28; Plut. Sulla 1, 31; Florus 2.9; Appian Civ War 1.95, 104, 4.26, 44; Cass.Dio. fr.109, 45.17, 47.3-5, 11)
  • de Proscriptorum Liberis: restricted children of the proscribed from holding magistracies. (Cicero Verr. II.1 Fam XIII.5; Livy Perio. 89; Plut. Sulla_31; Dio Cass_43.50, 51.21)
  • de civitate?: manumitted and gave citizenship to slaves who supported him naming them Cornelii (Appian Civ. War 1.100)See also the Decretum de Civitate of 84 BC above, which may be support for the same legal action.
  • Extended the pomerium (sacred border of the city) (Tac. Ann. 12; Gell. 13.14; Dio. Cass. 43.50)
  • Agraria: settled his veterans on various colonies throughout Italy (Appian Civ. War 1.96-100; Cicero Leg.Agr. II.68-70)
  • de Tribunis Plebis: reduced tribunician power by requiring senate's approval before proposed bills could be brought to the people, limited the power of the veto (intercessio), and prevented ex-tribunes from election to other magistracies. (Appian Civ. War 100; Cicero Verr. II.1, Leg III; Caesar Civ. War 1.7; Livy Perio. 89; Vell. Pat. 2.30; Suet. Caes. 5)
  • de Praetoribus et de Viginti Quaestoribus: increased the number of praetors to 8 and quaestors to 20 (Tac. Ann. 11.22)
  • de Magistratibus: quaestorship made prerequisite for election as praetor which in turn was a prerequisite for the consulship. Reaffirmed the Lex Villia Annalis of 180 BC requiring 10 year gaps between holding the same magistracy. (Appian Civ. War 100)
  • de Pontificum Augurumque Collegium: increased the number of priests and augurs to 15. (Livy Perio. 89; Cass.Dio. 37.37)
  • de Provinciis de Ordinandis: regulated the conduct of provincial governors (Cicero Fam. I.9, III.6, 10; Plut. Luc. 35; Cass.Dio. 36.37, 39.39)
  • de Censoribus: reduced or eliminated the office of the censor, but restored by the legislation of Gn. Pompeius Magnus and P. Licinius Crassus c. 70 BC. (ad Cic.Div. in Caecil. 3; Cicero Verr. 1.54; Val.Max. 5.9; Plut. Pomp. 22)
  • de Senatum ex Equestri Ordine: Enrolled new members of the senate and increased the size from 300 to 600 (and expanded the curia hostilia to accommodate them) (Sall. Cat. 37; Livy Perio. 89; Appian Civ. War 100)
  • de Iudicaria: transferred membership of juries from the equites to senators. (Cicero Verr. 1, 2.2; Vell. Pat. 2.32; Tac. Ann. 11.22)
  • de Falsis: severely punished the falsification or wills. (Cicero Verr. 2.1; Justin Dig. 1.2.2)
  • de Maiestate [also de Sicariis et Veneficis (murder via witchcraft), de Nummaria and de Ambitu (bribery), de Iniuriis (injury)]: numerous adjustments to public behavior codes and the establishment of courts. Also revised treason law to circumvent illegalities or rogue behavior of provincial governors. (Cicero Clu. 151, 154, Pis. 50, Rab.Post. 8-9, Fam. 3.11; Sen Apocol 14; Justin. Dig 1.2.2)
  • de Sumtuaria: limited personal expenditures on entertaining/feasts. (Gell. 2.24; Amm.Marc. 16.5; Macrob. Sat. 3.17)



The Catiline Conspiracy


Lex Lutatia De Vi(s)
By consul L. Lutatia Catulus, regarding civil violence. (Cicero Cael. 70)
Lex Philippia?
By ex-censor Lucius Philippus. Provided the special command against Sertorius in Hispania to Gn. Pompeius Magnus (at this point he was still not a member of the senate) along with Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius rather than the standing consuls. (Cicero Leg.Man. 62, Phil 11; Sall. Hist. 2, 2.8; Livy Perio. 91; Plut: Pomp. 13-17; Appian Hisp. 101, Civ. War 1.80; 108; Cass.Dio. 36.25, 27)
Lex Aurelia de Tribunis Plebis
By consul C. Aurelius Cotta, rescinded the Lex Cornelia of Sulla (81 BC) that prevented tribunis plebis from being eligible for higher magistracies after their terms as tribunes. (Sall. Hist. 2'45, 3.34; Ascon. 66-67, 78)
Lex Terentia et Cassia Frumentaria
By consuls M. Terentius Varro Lucullus and C. Cassius Longinus, another law dealing with the grain dole. It distributed the dole at reduced prices. (Cicero Verr II.3, 5; Sall. Hist. 3.34)
Lex Gellia et Cornelia de Civitate
By the consuls L. Gellius and Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Clodianus, enables commanders to confer citizenship for valor. (Cicero Balb. 8, 14)
Edictum Hieronica Abrogatio?
By Caius Verres, proconsular governor of Sicily. Altered the terms of the Lex Hieronica (215? BC) which governed the taxation rules of that province. This along with many illegalities resulted in his famous prosecution by Cicero. (Cicero Verr. II.3).
Lex Aurelia Iudiciaria
By praetor L. Aurelius Cotta, the Iudiciria enacted that the criminal court juries should be equally chosen from senators, equites, and tribuni aerarii (Cicero Verr. II.2, 3, Clu. 130, Phil. 1; Livy Perio. 97; Tac. Ann. 3; Plut. Pomp. 22; Vell. Pat. 2.32).
Plautia de Reditu Lepidanorum
By the tribune Plautius or Plotius, this recalled the exiled supporters (Such as L. Cinna) of M. Aemilius Lepidus, the rebel consul of 78 BC. (Sall. Hist. 4; Suet. Caes. 5)
Lex Pompeia de Tribunicia Potestate
By consu Cn. Pompeius Magnus (and likely consul M. Licinius Crassus), this fully restored the powers of the tribunus plebis to those that were held prior to the Leges Corneliae of Sulla. (Cicero Verr. 1, Leg. 3; Sall. Cat. 38; Caes. Civ. War 1.7; Livy Perio. 97; Vell. Pat. 2.30; Tac. Ann. 3; Plut. Pomp. 22; Appian Civ. War 2.29)
Lex Gabinia de Piratis Persequendis
By tribune A. Gabinius, it established complete regional authority for Pompeius against the pirates in the Mediterranean Sea. (Cicero Leg.Man. 44, 52-53, 56, 59, 67; Sall. Hist. 5; Livy Perio. 99; Vell. Pat. 2.31-32; Plut. Pomp. 25-26; Appian Mith. 94; Cass.Dio. 36.23-37)
Lex Acilia et Calpurnia Ambitu
By consuls C. Calpurnius Piso and M'. Acilius Glabrio, permanently exluded those guilty of election bribery from future magisterial elections. (Cicero Mur. 67; Cass.Dio. 36.38-40)
Leges Corneliae
By the tribune C. Cornelius. Proposed and/or enacted a series of laws. One restricted the power of the senate to grant immunity from legal constraints. (Quint. 10.5.12). Another forced praetors to abide by the rules of their own edicts (which they often tried to alter as they pursued various court cases). (Cass.Dio. 36.40)
Lex Roscia Theatralis
By tribune L. Roscius Otho, gave the equites a special place at the public spectacles in fourteen rows or seats (in quatuordecim gradibus sive ordinibus) next to the senators in the orchestra. (Cicero, Mur. 19, 40, Phil., 2.18, Cass.Dio. 36.40, Livy Perio. 99)
67 or 58
Lex Gabinia
By A. Gabinius as tribune in 67 or consul in 58, forbade all loans of money at Rome to foreign envoys. The object was to prevent money from being borrowed for the purpose of bribing the senate. (Cicero ad Att. V.21, VI.1, 2)
Lex Manilia De Libertinorum Suffragiis
By tribune Manilius, enables freedmen to vote in the same tribe as their former masters (revoked by the Senate in 66). (Cass.Dio. 36.42)
Lex Manilia de Imperio Cn. Pompeius
By tribune C. Manilius, provided Gnaeus Pompeius the command against Mithridates VI, with imperium throughout Asia Minor. (Cicero Leg.Man. 1-71, Mur. 34, Dom. 19; Livy Perio. 100; Vell. Pat. 2.33; Plut. Luc. 35, Pomp. 30; Appian Mith. 91, 97; Cass.Dio. 36.42-43)
Lex Papia de Peregrinis
By tribune G. Papius, barred aliens from living in Rome. (Cass.Dio.37.9)
Lex Ampia Labiena de Trimphalibus Ornamentis Cn. Pompeius
By tribunes T. Ampius and T. Labienus, allowed special provisions for Cn. Pompeius Magnus regarding triumphal attire after his eastern victories. (Vell. Pat. 2.40; Cass.Dio.37.21)
Rogatio Servilia Agraria
By tribune P. Servilius Rullus, supported by consul C. Antonius Hybrida, an extensive land distribution proposal including Campania and portions of the eastern settlements of Cn. Pompeius Magnus. Successfully opposed by consul M. Tullius Cicero. (The agrarian laws of C. Iullius Caesar 59 BC bear much resemblence to this proposal). (Cicero Leg. Agr. 1-3, Att. 2.1, Pis. 4, Fam. 13.4; Plin. Nat. Hist. 7, 8; Plut. Cic. 12; Cass.Dio.37.25)
Lex Tullia de Ambitu
By consul M. Tullius Cicero, bribery laws largely in opposition to L. Sergius Catilina. (Cicero Vat. 15, 37, Sest. 44, 133, Mur. 2, 23, 32, 41; Cass.Dio.37.29)
Senatus Consultum Ultimum
Authorized the standing consuls to use force against the rebellion of L. Sergius Catilina. (Cicero Cat. I, 2; Plut. Cic. 15; Sall. Cat. 28, 29; Cass.Dio. 37.31)
Lex Licinia et Iunia
By consuls L. Licinius Murena and Iunius Silanus, ordered that official text of statutes be deposited in state archives. (Cicero pro Sestio 64, Phil. V.3, ad Att. II.9, IV.16, in Vatin. 14)
Lex Porcia Frumentaria?
By tribune M. Porcius Cato, in the wake of the crisis with Catiline, it advised the senate to reduce the price for distributions of grain at a cost to the treasury of 1250 talents. (Plut. Cat. Min. 31; Caes. 8)
Lex Maria et Porcia
By tribunes M. Porcius Cato and L. Marius, fixed penalties for commanders who gave false information about numbers killed in war in setting the rules for granting of triumphs. (Val.Max. 2.8.1)
Rogatio Caecilia de Pompeia?
By tribune Q. Caecilius Metellus Nepos, proposed that Cn. Pompeius Magnus and his legions should return to Italy from his eastern campaigns in order to quell potential insurrection after the Catiline conspiracy, essentially granting Pompeius Sullan-like dictatorial authority. Opposed by tribunes M. Porcius Cato and Minucius Thermus. (Plut. Cat. Min. 26-29)
Rogatio Aufidia de Ambitu
By tribune Aufidia, a failed proposal to punish a briber, but only if he actually carried through with a bribe rather than just suggesting it. (Cicero. ad Att. I.16)

The First Triumvirate


The Conquest of Gaul


Rogatio Flavia Agraria
By tribune L. Flavius, for the distribution of lands among Pompeius' soldiers, consul Caecilius Metellus was imprisoned for opposing it. Failure of this proposal was remedied in the Leges Iuliae of 59. (Cicero ad Att. I.18, 19; Cass.Dio.37.50)
Lex Metella?
By praetor Metellus Nepos, cancelled taxes on imports. (Cass.Dio.37.51)
Lex Fufia Iudiciaria
By praetor Q. Fufius Calenus, quoting Cass.Dio.38.8 "finding that the votes of all were hopelessly confused, at least in party contests, since each of the orders attributed the good measures to itself and referred the preposterous ones to the others, proposed a that each order should cast its vote separately. His purpose was that even if their individual opinions could not be revealed, by reason of their taking this vote secretly, yet it might become clear how the orders, at least, felt."
Leges Iuliae

By consul Iulius Caesar with the support of fellow triumvirs Gn Pompeius and M. Licinius Crassus, several laws including:

Lex Vatinia

By tribune P. Vatinius, it gave C. Iulius Caesar governorship of Cisalpine Gaul and Illyricum for five years. A senatus consultum added Transalpine Gaul shortly after. (Vell.Pat. 2.44; Cat. Min. 33, Caes. 14, Pomp. 48, Crass_14; Suet. Caes. 22; Appian Civ. War 2.13-14; Cass.Dio. 38.8; Cicero Att. VIII.3)

Lex Vatinia de Colonia Comum Deducenda
By tribune P. Vatinius, granted citizenship to the residents of Novum Comum. (Suet. Caes. 22, 28)
Lex Vatinia de Alternis Conciliis Reiciendis
By tribune P. Vatinius, proposed a law to allow each party to reject judges alternately. (Cicero, Vat. XI.27)
Lex Curiata de Adoptione
Passed in the curiata, allowed a patrician to be adopted into a plebeian family. P. Clodius used this gain election as a tribune. (Cicero Dom. 35-42, 77, Har.Resp. 45, Sest. 15-16, Prov.Con. 42, Att.VIII.3; Livy Perio. 103; Plut. Caes. 14; Suet. Caes. 20, Cass.Dio. 38.12, 39.11)
Leges Clodiae

By tribune P. Clodius Pulcher, a series of laws including:

  • de Auspiciis: negated the Lex Aelia et Fufia of 150 that allowed magistrates to declare assemblies of the people invalid due to bad omens. (Cicero Red.Sen. 11, Har.Resp. 58, Sest. 33, 56, Vat. 18, Pis. 9-10; Cass.Dio. 38.13)
  • de Frumentaria: distributed grain completely free of charge. (Cicero Dom. 25, Sest. 55; Cass.Dio. 38.13);
  • de Sodalitatibus or de Collegiis: restored the right to belong to collegia or guilds. (Cicero Sest. 34, 55; Cass.Dio. 38.13)
  • de Censoribus: restricted the power of censors to regulate the rolls of the senate. (Cicero Sest. 34, 55; Cass.Dio. 38.13) Repealed by Metellus Scipio in 52. (Cass.Dio. 40.57)
  • de Provinciis?: allocated the provinces of Macedonia to consul Piso, and Syria to consul Gabinius. (Plut. Cic. 30)
  • de Rege Ptolemaeo: established Cyprus as a province and appoints M. Porcius Cato as governor (first as ambassador to Ptolemy of Egypt), ostensibly to remove him as a political obstruction. (Cicero Dom. 20-23, 52-53, 65; Livy Perio. 103; Vell.Pat. 2.45; Plut. Cat. Min. 34; Appian Civ. War 2.23; Cass.Dio. 38.30)
  • de Civibus Romanis Interemptis: exiled whoever put to death a Roman citizen without trial (Vell.Pat. 2.45; Cicero Pro Domo. 18, Post Redit. in Sen. 2.5, Cass.Dio. 38.14)
  • de Exsulibus Byzantinis: banished Cicero from Rome based on the de Civibus Romanis Interemptis above (related to the Catiline conspiracy). (Cicero Dom. 43-53, 82-85, Sest. 53-54, Pis. 72, Leg 3; Plut. Cat. Min. 30, Plut. Cic. 32; Cass.Dio. 38.17)
Lex Cornelia et Caecilia de Cn. Pompeius
By consuls P. Cornelius Lentulus Spinther and Q. Caecilius Metellus Nepos; authorized Cn. Pompeius Magnus with extraordinary powers to supervise the grain dole (res frumentaria) for 5 years. (Cicero ad Att. IV.1; Livy Perio. 104; Cass.Dio. 39.9; Plut. Pomp. 49)
Lex? Cornelia
Consul P. Cornelius Lentulus Spinther successfully sponsored a vote of the centuriate recalling Cicero from exile. (Cicero Red.Sen. 27-28, Red.Pop. 16-17, Att. 4.1, Dom.4-5, 75, 90, Pis.35-36; Livy Perio. 104; Vell.Pat. 2.45; Plut. Cic. 34; Appian Civ. War 2.16; Cass.Dio. 39.8)
Lex Licinia de Sodaliciis
By consul M. Licinius Crassus, this lex against bribery was specially directed against a particular mode of canvassing, which consisted in employing agents (sodales) to mark out the members of the several tribes into smaller portions, and to secure more effectually the votes by this division of labor. (Cicero Planc. 36, 44; Cass.Dio. 39.37)
Lex Trebonia De Provinciis Consularibus
By tribune C. Trebonius, authorized 5 year proconsular terms of the provinces of Hispania and Syria for current consuls Cn. Pompeius Magnus and M. Licinius Crassus respectively. (Livy Perio. 105; Vell.Pat. 2.46, Plut. Cat. Min. 43, Pomp. 52 , Crass_15-16, 35; Appian Civ. War 2.18; Cass.Dio. 39.33-35)
Lex Pompeia et Licinia de Provincia C. Iulii Caesaris

By consuls Cn. Pompeius Magnus and M. Licinius Crassus, prolonged Caesar's proconsulship in both the Gauls for another 5 years. (Caesar Gall. War. 8.53; Cicero Phil. 2; Vell.Pat. 2.46; Plut. Cat. Min. 43, Pomp. 52, Crass_15; Appian Civ. War 2.18; Cass.Dio. 39.36)

Lex Pompeia de Parricidiis
By consul Cn. Pompeius Magnus, further defined the penalties for parricide. (Just. Inst. 4.18; Paul. Sent. V.24)
Decretum de Tacito Iudicio
By praetor M. Porcius Cato, persuaded the senate to make a decree that magistrates elect, in case they had no accuser, should freely come before a sworn court and submit accounts of their election (an attempt to purge election bribery and illegal canvassing of votes). (Plut. Cato Min. 44)

Senatus Consulta de Pompei Legato

Senatus Consulta de Pompei Solus Consulibus?

Authorized Cn. Pompeius Magnus to levy troops to quell the street violence between the gangs of Clodius and Milo. (Cicero Mil. 67, 70; Caesar Gall. War 7.1; Cass.Dio. 40.50).

Pompeius also nominated as lone consul. (Livy Perio. 107; Cat. Min. 47, Caes. 28 , Pomp. 54; Suet. Caes. 26; Appian Civ. War 2.23; Cass.Dio. 40.50). Though Q. Metellus Scipio was later appointed as co-Consul. (Plut. Pomp. 55; Appian Civ. War 2.25; Cass.Dio. 40.51)

Leges Pompeiae

By consul Pompeius Magnus, several motions including:

  • de Iudiciaria: established special courts to prosecute cases of violence. (Cicero Mil. 13, 15, 21-22, 31, 79, Phil. 2)
  • de Ambitu: established a court to oversee election bribery (also retrospective). (Cicero Mil. 65-67, Brut 324, Fin 4; Caes. Civ. War 3.1; Vell.Pat. 2.47; Cat. Min. 48, Pomp. 55; Appian Civ. War 2.23; Cass.Dio. 40.52)
  • de Provinciis: set a gap of five years after a magistrate's year of office, before they can govern a province (Cass.Dio. 40.56)
  • de Iure Magistratuum: made election in absentia illegal, but Caesar was exempted for the upcoming election. This component of the Leges Pompeiae was amended retroactively, after suspicion was aroused regarding Pompey's attitude towards Caesar. (Cicero Att. 8.3, Phil. 2; Plut. Pomp. 56; Suet. Caes. 28; Cass.Dio. 40.56)
Lex? Decemtribunis? de Caesaris Absentiis? (Law of the ten tribunes)

Proposed by the 10 tribunes of 52 BC authorizing Caesar to run for consul in absentia. (Cicero Att. VII.1, VIII.3; Caes. Civ. War 1.9, 32; Livy Perio. 107, 108; Suet. Caes. 26; Appian Civ. War 2.25; Cass.Dio. 40.51

Lex Caecilia Abrogatio Clodia de Censoribus
By consul Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio Nasica, annulled the law of P. Clodius (58 BC) that limited the power of censors. (Cass.Dio. 40.57)

Civil War


The Dictatorship of Caesar


Rogatio Claudia de Provinciis

By consul M. Claudius Marcellus, attempted to appoint a new governor of Gaul and recall Caesar to Rome. (Cicero Fam. 8.1; Caesar Gall. War 7.1; Livy Perio. 108; Plut. Caes. 29; Suet. Caes. 28-29; Appian Civ. War 2.25-26; Cass.Dio. 40.59)

Senatus Consulta de Senatus Auctoritates

Several attempted decrees of the senate, seemingly originating with consul C. Claudius Marcellus,

  • With the approval of Cn. Pompeius, it called for Caesar to quit his province after March 1 of the following year (ending his proconsular imperium). Passed.
  • Declared that a tribune who interfered with motions brought before the senate or the people shall be considered to have acted against the Republic. Vetoed.
  • Declared that Caesar's veterans in Gaul who wished to be discharged should have their claims reviewed by the senate in order to grant those requests. Vetoed.
  • Clarified the imperium of pro-praetors and their appointment to provinces. Vetoed.
(Cicero Fam. 8.8)
Jan 50
Rogatio Scribonia de Intercalando
By tribune C. Scribonius Curio on behalf of Caesar, attempted to interject an intercalary month in the calendar, presumably to give Caesar more time before his imperium in Gaul expired. (Cicero Fam. 8.6; Cass.Dio. 40.62)
Rogatiae Scriboniae

A series of populist proposals by tribune C. Scribonius Curio,

  • Viaria: regarded the appointment of a commission of curators for a 5 year term to oversee road building and repairs, for which Curio himself would have been nominated.
  • Agraria: proposed to distribute the lands of King Juba of Numidia to the people.
  • Alimentaria: proposed that aediles should measure the sale of provisions.
(Cicero Fam. 8.6, Att. 6.1; Caesar Civ. War_2.25; Appian Civ. War 2.27)
Mar 50
Rogatio Claudia
An attempt by consul C. Claudius Marcellus to fix the date of Caesar's ending imperium in Gaul on November 13 and therefore recall him to Rome. While supported by Cn. Pompeius Magnus, it was rigorously opposed and ultimately defeated by tribune C. Scribonius Curio. (Cicero Att. 7.1, 7, Fam 8.11, 13; Caesar Gall. War. 8.53; Livy Perio. 108)
Rogatio Scribonia de Pompei et Caesaris
By tribune C. Scribonius Curio, attempted to persuade the senate and Cn. Pompeius Magnus that Caesar would lay down his arms and imperium in Gaul, if Pompey did the same. (Livy Perio. 109; Plut. Caes 30; Appian Civ. War 2.27)
Jun 50
Rogatio Pompeia
By proconsul Cn. Pompeius Magnus, offered to the senate that he would be willing to lay down his arms with Caesar as proposed by Curio. However, Curio rejected it on the grounds that Pompey would not show good faith by giving up his command first. (Appian Civ. War 2.28)
Aug 50
Decretum de Legionis Syria
A senatorial decree authorizing both Pompeius and Caesar to send one legion each to Syria in the wake of the defeat of M. Licinius Crassus to Parthia (53 BC). Both legions ultimately came from Caesar as he sent 1 that Pompey had loaned to him for the war in Gaul and 1 of his own. However neither legion went to Syria but rather stayed in Italy under Pompey's command. (Caesar Gall. War. 8.54-55, Civ. War_3.88; Plut. Caes 29, Pomp. 56-57, Anton. 5; Appian Civ. War 2.29-30; Cass.Dio. 40.65-66)
Dec 1 50
Rogatio Antonia?
A vote of the senate overwhelmingly supports the earlier Rogatio Scribonia (reintroduced by the tribune M. Antonius) that both Pompeius and Caesar should lay down their commands at the same time. The vote, if it took place, was negated by the opposition of consul Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio and consul elect L. Cornelius Lentulus Crus. (Plut. Cat. Min._51, Caes 30 , Pomp. 58 , Anton. 5; Appian Civ. War 2.30; Cass.Dio. 40.62)
Dec 2 50
Edictum Aemilia et Claudia
Consuls L. Aemilius Paullus Lepidus and C. Claudius Marcellus without the agreement of the Senate authorized Pompeius Magnus to take up arms in defense of the Republic against Caesar based on a false rumor that Caesar had crossed the Alps with his army. (Plut. Pomp. 59; Appian Civ. War 2.31; Cass.Dio. 40.64)
Dec 9 50
Rogatio Iulia
Final proposal by proconsul C. Iullius Caesar, offered to give up all but two legions, but retain proconsular authority in Gaul and Illyria and be appointed consul for 49. Accepted by Pompeius but rejected by the consuls. (Suet. Caes. 43; Appian Civ. War 2.32)
Jan 49
Senatus Consulta Ultimum
Ordered the consuls and Cn. Pompeius Magnus to defend Rome and that Caesar lay down his arms immediately or be declared an enemy of the state (Jan 1). Consulta enacted as Caesar crossed the Rubicon (Jan 10). (Dio Cass. 41.3; Caes. Civ. War. 1.5; Livy Perio. 109; Appian Civ. War. 2.33)
Lex Iulia de Bonis Cedendis, Lex Iulia de Pecuniis Mutuis
By dictator C. Iulius Caesar, debt relief and various loan reform. (Appian Civ. War 2.40; Cass.Dio. 41.37, 42.51; Plut. Caes. 37)
Lex Roscia
By C. Iulius Caesar through tribune Roscius, gave full citizenship to the people of Transalpine Gaul. (Table of Heraclea, Cic. ad Fam. 6.18) See Lex Rubria 45-43 BC.
Rogatio Cornelia de Novis Tabellis
By tribune P. Cornelius Dolabella while M. Antonius was Caesar's Magister Equitum in Rome (master of horse), called for total debt relief, essentially in order to free his own debt burdens (Cass.Dio. 42.29) Caused a riot by the plebes and the death of 800. (Plut. Ant. 9; Livy Perio. 113; Cass.Dio. 42.32)
Lex Hirtia de Pompeianis
By praetor Aulus Hirtius, a law that restricted any member of the Pompeius clan from holding a magistracy. (Cicero, Phil. 13, 16)
Lex Iulia de Modo Credendi Possidendique Intra Italiam
By dictator C. Iulius Caesar, defined the terms of lending money and of holding estates in Italia. (Tac. Ann. 6.16)
Lex Iulia de Provinciis
By dictator C. Iulius Caesar, limited the term of propraetors to one year, and that of proconsuls to two consecutive years, and enacted that no one whatever should be allowed to hold any command for a longer time. (Cass.Dio. 43.25)
Lex Iulia Sumptuaria
By dictator C. Iulius Caesar, checked personal expenditures on entertaining (Cass.Dio. 43.25; Suet. Caes. 43)
Lex Iulia de Calendari?
By dictator C. Iulius Caesar, through egyptian astrologists reformed the calendar to coincide with a more accurate solar year. (Suet. Caes. 40; Macrob. Sat. 14.3; Cass.Dio. 43.26; Plut. Caes. 59)
Caesar named dictator in perpetua (dictator for life) (Plut. Caes. 56; Livy Perio. 116)
Caesar increased the number of praetors from 8 to as many as 16 (Cass.Dio. 43.49;. Quaestors doubled from 20 to 40 (Cass.Dio. 43.50) (later reduced by Augustus Dio. Cass. 53.31).
Lex Iulia Municipalis
By C. Iulius Caesar, published by M. Antonius, regulated the Italian municipalities (Table of Heraclea).
Lex Cassia
By praetor? C. Cassius Longinus, allowed dicator C. Iulius Caesar to admit plebeian families into the patrician order. (Tac. Ann. 11.25; Cass.Dio. 43.47)
Lex Rubria (or de Gallia Cisalpina)
By C. Iulius Caesar through tribune Rubria. It incorporated Gallia Cisalpina into Italia, granting citizenship in the process. (Veleia bronze tablet at Parma)

The Second Triumvirate


The Fall of the Republic


Lex Antonia de Permutatione Provinciae
By consul M. Antonius, after the assassination of Caesar, this transferred Antonius' arranged command in Macedonia to Cisalpine Gaul and Transalpine Gaul (the province assigned to Decimus Brutus). (Appian Civ. War. 3.27)
Lex Vibia de Dictatura Tollenda
By consul C. Vibius Pansa, abolished the office of dictator. (Cass.Dio. 44.51)
Lex Curiata de Imperio (or Adoptione)
Corfirmed the adoption of C. Octavius by Iulius Caesar . (Livy Perio. 116; Appian Civ. War 3.14; Cass.Dio. 45.5; Plut. Ant. 16)
Lex Pedia de Interfectoribus Caesaris
By consuls Q. Pedius and C. Iulius Caesar Octavianus, banished (and called for the death of) Caesar's assassins. (Vell. Pat. 2.69; Livy Perio. 120)
Lex Titia
By tribune P. Titius, appointed triumviri rei publicae constituendae consulari potestate for 5 years, consitutionally legalizing the triumvirate of M. Antonius, C. Iulius Caesar Octavianus and M. Aemilius Lepidus. Also legalized massive proscriptions against political opponents. (Livy Perio. 120; Cass.Dio. 46.50-56; Plut. Ant. 18-21;
Foedus de Tarentum
The treaty of Tarentum established peace with Sext. Pompeius in Sicilia and reconfirmed the second triumvirate for another 5 years. (Cass.Dio. 48.36; Plut. Ant. 30-33)
Lex Saenia de Plebeiis in Patricios Adlegendis
Enrolled in the ranks of the patricians such senators as were of the oldest families, and such as had had distinguished ancestors. (Tac. Ann. 11.25)
First settlement with C. Iulius Caesar Octavianus, henceforth known as Augustus. Given proconsular authority throughout the western provinces and Syria (essentially all the provinces with legionary presence) and named princeps (first citizen). (Livy Perio. 134; Cass.Dio.53.16; Res Gestae Divi Aug.)
Second settlement of Augustus. Granted tribunicia potestas or the power of the tribune to convene the senate and the people's assemblies, veto proposed legislation and oversee elections. Also granted imperium proconsulare maius or authority over all proconsuls, essentially giving him complete command of the provinces and legions. This second settlement essentially ended the Republic, though it's institutions would continue. (Dio. Cass. 53.31; Res Gestae Divi Aug.)
Third settlement of Augustus. The plebes were not fully aware of the changes that the constitution meant for the power of Augustus. Augustus did not stand for election as consul in 22, 21 and 19 BC fearing that the senate was attempting to circumvent the authority of Augustus. They rioted in response and would only elect one consul in those years in order to reserve a spot for Augustus. In order to assuage the plebes, the senate granted him the right to wear the consular insignia permanently in public regardless of whether or not he actually had been elected as consul. (Dio. Cass. 54.1, 6, 10; Res Gestae Divi Aug. )

Roman Law Glossary

Did you know?

Consuls and Proconsuls functioned as military commanders, provincial governors and curators of public works.


Legal and Institutional Chronology of the Roman Republic - Related Topic: Birth of the Roman Republic


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