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Byzantine Emperors

Political Violence in the Roman Republic (including civil war)

From the Gracchi to the Death of C. Iulius Caesar (132 - 44 BC)

Year

Name

Notable Magistracies

Type

Notes

Sources

132

Ti. Sempronius Gracchus

Tr. Pl. 133

Mob Violence

Killed along with hundreds of supporters in factional violence following radical legislation attempts during the election process for the year 132.

App. Civ. War. 1.16-17; Liv. Per. 58; Plut. Ti. Grac. 19-20; Vell. Pat. 2.3

132

C. Villius

 

Execution

A friend of Ti. Gracchus, put to death by being locked in a cage with vipers.

Plut. Ti. Grac. 20

132

C. Blosius

 

Suicide

A friend of Ti. Gracchus. After the murder of Gracchus he fled to Asia and committed suicide.

Plut. Ti. Grac. 20

132

Diophanes

 

Execution

The Rhetorician. A friend of Ti. Gracchus; killed in the purge following the death of Gracchus.

Plut. Ti. Grac. 20

129

P. Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus

Cos 147, 134 Cens. 142

Murder?

Nature of death, whether natural or politically motivated homicide, due to opposition to the Gracchi, is uncertain.

App. Civ. War. 1.20; Liv. Per. 59.11; Plut. C. Gracc. 10; Vell. Pat. 2.4.5

123

P. Popillius Laenas

Cos. 132

Exile

Banished by C. Gracchus for his role in executing citizens without trial in the death of Ti. Gracchus and his supporters. Recalled after the death of C. Gracchus

Cic. Brut. 25.34, Vell. Pat. 2.7.3; Plut C. Gracc. 4

121

Antullius

 

Murder

Though only a servant of C. Gracchus, his murder in the forum while attempting a sacrifice opened the violence that led to the death of Gracchus himself.

Plut. C. Gracc. 13

121

M. Pomponius

 

Mob Violence

A friend of C. Gracchus of equestrian rank. Killed while attempting to see Gracchus to safety.

Plut. C. Grac. 1.16; Vell. Pat. 2.6.4

121

Licinius

 

Mob Violence

A friend of C. Gracchus of equestrian rank. Killed while attempting to see Gracchus to safety.

Plut. C. Grac. 1.16

121

C. Sempronius Gracchus

Tr. Pl. 123, 122

Execution

Execution for treason in factional mob violence along with thousands of supporters. By order of cos. L. Opimius

App. Civ. War. 1.26; Plut. C. Grac. 1.17; Liv. Per. 61; Vell. Pat. 2.6.4

121

M. Fulvius Flaccus

Cos. 125, Tr. Pl. 122

Execution

Execution for treason in factional mob violence by order of cos. L. Opimius.

App. Civ. War. 1.26; Plut. C. Grac. 1.17; Liv. Per. 61; Vell. Pat. 2.6.4

100

A. Nonius

Candidate for Tr. Pl. 100

Murder

Murdered by political opponents, Pr. C. Servilius Glaucia and L. Appuleius Saturninus.

App. Civ. War 1.28; Plut. Mar. 29; Liv. Per. 69

100

Q. Caecilius Metellus Numidicus

Cos. 109, Cens. 102

Exile

Exiled by Saturninus for refusing to accept an agrarian law supporting Marius' veterans. Recalled the following year.

App. Civ. War. 1.29-32; Liv. Per. 69; Plut. Mar. 29; Vell. Pat. 2.15

100

C. Memmius

Tr. Pl. 111, Pr. 104 or 3

Mob Violence

Murdered by supporters of Saturninus, an opponent for office of tribune in 99.

App. Civ. War. 1.32; Cic. in Cat. 4.2; Liv. Per. 69; Flor. 3.16

100

L. Appuleius Saturninus

Tr. Pl. 102, 100, (elected for 99 but did not serve)

Mob Violence

Killed in the senate house by the mob following the murder of Memmius.

App. Civ. War. 1.28-32; Plut. Mar. 30; Liv. Per. 69; Oros. 5.17; Flor. 3.16; Vell. Pat. 2.12

100

C. Servilius Glaucia

Tr. Pl. 101, Pr. 100

Mob Violence

Killed in the senate house with Saturninus by the mob following the murder of Memmius.

App. Civ. War. 1.28-32; Val. Max. 9.7; Plut. Mar. 27, 30; Vell. Pat. 2.12; Flor. 3.16.

100

C. Saufeius

Qua. 100

Mob Violence

Killed in the senate house with Saturninus by the mob following the murder of Memmius

App. Civ. War. 1.28-32

100

L. Equitius (Gracchus)?

Tr. Pl. 100

Mob Violence

Supposed son of T. Gracchus, killed with Saturninus.

App. Civ. War. 1.33

100

Cn. Cornelius Dolabella

 

Mob Violence

Killed in the senate house with Saturninus by the mob following the murder of Memmius

 

99

P. Furius

Tr. Pl. 100

Mob Violence

Killed (torn apart) in mob violence for opposing the recall of Metellus Numidicus.

App. Civ. War. 1.33; Cass. Dio 28.95

95

Q. Servilius Caepio

Cos. 106

Exile

Exiled in 95 for the destruction of his army at Aurasio against the Cimbri 10 years earlier

Cic. Brut. 44, pro Balb. 11; Val. Max 4.7, 6.9

92

P. Rutilius Rufus

Cos. 105

Exile

Exiled by political opponents for extortion. Later recalled by Sulla, though he remained away from Rome.

Liv. Per. 70; Vell. Pat. 2.13; Cass. Dio. 28.97

91

M. Livius Drusus

Tr. Pl. 91

Murder

Murdered after proposition of radical agrarian and Italian citizenship laws.

App. Civ. War. 1.36-37, Liv. Per. 71; Vell. Pat. 2.14

90
C. Aurelius Cotta   Exile A friend of Drusus. Went into voluntary exile after the passage of the Lex Varia which would condemn those who aided the Italians in gain ing the Roman citizenship under the proposals of Drusus. Returned in the dictatorship of Sulla (c. 82 BC) Cic. De Or. 3.11, Brut. 305; App. Civ. War. 1.37
90
L. Calpurnius Bestia Tr. Pl. 121 Exile Went into voluntary exile after the passage of the Lex Varia which would condemn those who aided the Italians in gain ing the Roman citizenship under the proposals of Drusus. App. Civ. War. 1.37
90
L. Mummius Achaicus Cos. 146 Exile Prosecuted and exiled after the passage of the Lex Varia which would condemn those who aided the Italians in gain ing the Roman citizenship under the proposals of Drusus. App. Civ. War. 1.37; Cic. Brut. 304

90

A. Sempronius Asellio

Pr. 89

Murder

Murdered by money-lenders in dispute over loans and public interest rates.

App. Civ. War. 1.54; Liv. Per. 74

90

Q. Servilius (Caepio?)

Pr. 91

Murder

Killed by Italians in revolt at Asculum, setting off the Social War. (Different than the praetor Cn. Servilius Caepio who was killed in battle in the same year.)

App. Civ. War. 1.38; Liv. Per. 72; Vell. Pat. 2.15; Oros. 5.18

90

C. Fonteius

Leg. of Q. Servilius

Murder

Killed by Italians in revolt at Asculum along with Q. Servilius, setting off the Social War

App. Civ. War. 1.38; Liv. Per. 72; Vell. Pat. 2.15; Oros. 5.18

89
Q. Varius Hybrida Tr. Pl. 90 Execution Condemned to death under the provisions of his own Lex Varia of the previous year relating to support for Italian citizenship. Cic. Brut. 305; Nat. Deor. 3.81; Val. Max. 8.6.4

89

L. Porcius Cato

Cos. 89

Murder

Either killed in battle with the Marsi (likely), or possibly murdered by C. Marius Minor. Only Orosius suggests 'foul play'.

Liv. Per. 75; Oros. 5.17

88

Q. Pompeius Rufus Minor

 

Mob Violence

Son of the consul of 88 and son-in-law of Sulla. Murdered by supporters of P. Sulpicius Rufus.

App. Civ. War. 1.56; Plut. Sull. 8; Liv. Per. 77; Plut. Mar. 29; Vell. Pat. 2.18.6

88

P. Sulpicius Rufus

Tr. Pl. 88

Execution

Proscribed by Sulla after his first march on Rome and executed.

App. Civ. War. 1.60, Liv. Per. 77; Plut. Sull. 10; Vell. Pat. 2.19

88

P. Cornelius Cethegus

 

Exile

Proscribed by Sulla after his first march on Rome and exiled, switched sides and pardoned in 83.

App. Civ. War. 1.60, 62, 80

88

Cn. Granius

 

Exile

Proscribed by Sulla after his first march on Rome and exiled.

App. Civ. War. 1.60

88

Q. Granius

 

Exile

Proscribed by Sulla after his first march on Rome and exiled.

App. Civ. War. 1.60

88

P. Tullius Albinovanus

 

Exile

Proscribed by Sulla and exiled after his first march on Rome. Pardoned in 81 after betraying the officers of C. Norbanus.

App. Civ. War. 1.60, 62, 91; Flor. 3.21

88

M. Laetorius

 

Exile

Proscribed by Sulla and exiled after his first march on Rome.

App. Civ. War. 1.60

88

C. Marius Major

Cos. 107, 104, 103, 102, 101, 100, 86

Exile

Proscribed by Sulla and exiled after his first march on Rome, died naturally in 86.

App. Civ. War. 1.60; Liv. Per. 77; Plut. Sull. 10; Vell. Pat. 2.19

88

Q. Pompeius Rufus Major

Cos. 88

Murder

Killed by supporters of Cn. Pompeius Strabo after taking over Strabo's command in the Social War.

App. Civ. War. 1.63; Vell. Pat. 2.20

88

M. Iunius Brutus (1)

Pr. 88

Exile

Proscribed by Sulla and exiled.

App. Civ. War. 1.60

88

C. Marius Minor (1)

Cos. 82

Exile

Proscribed by Sulla and exiled, continued as a leader of the opposing Marian faction.

App. Civ. War. 1.94; Plut. Sull. 32, Mar. 46; Liv. Per. 86-88; Vell. Pat. 2.20.5; Flor. 3.21

87

L. Cornelius Cinna (1)

Cos. 87

Exile

Stripped of his consulship by co-consul Cn. Octavius and expelled from Rome for attempting to recall C. Marius. Cinna later returned with Marius and dominated Rome in the absence of Sulla.

Liv. Per. 79; App. Civ. War 64, 65; Plut. Mar. 41

87

Cn. Octavius

Cos. 87

Murder

Murdered by Marcus Censorinus as Marius and Cinna entered the city.

App. Civ. War. 1.64, 68-71; Plut. Mar. 42, Sull. 12; Liv. Per. 79, 80; Vell. Pat. 2.22

87

C. Iulius Caesar Strabo Vopiscus

Aed. 90

Execution

Proscribed and executed by Marius & Cinna

App. Civ. War. 1.72

87

L. Iulius Caesar

Cos. 90

Execution

Proscribed and executed by Marius & Cinna

App. Civ. War. 1.72

87

A. Serranus

 

Execution

Proscribed and executed by Marius & Cinna

App. Civ. War. 1.72

87

P. Lentulus

 

Execution

Proscribed and executed by Marius & Cinna

App. Civ. War. 1.72

87

C. Nemetorius

 

Execution

Proscribed and executed by Marius & Cinna

App. Civ. War. 1.72

87

M. Baebius

 

Execution

Proscribed and executed by Marius & Cinna

App. Civ. War. 1.72

87

P. Licinius Crassus Dives

Cos. 97

Execution

Proscribed and executed by Marius & Cinna (father of triumvir)

App. Civ. War. 1.72; Liv. Per. 80; Plut. Crass 4; Flor. 3.21

87

P. Licinius Crassus Dives Minor

 

Execution

Proscribed and executed by Marius & Cinna (brother of triumvir)

App. Civ. War. 1.72; Liv. Per. 80; Plut. Crass 4; Flor. 3.21

87

M. Antonius (The Orator)

Cos. 99, Cens. 97

Execution

Proscribed and executed by Marius & Cinna (grandfather of triumvir)

App. Civ. War. 1.73; Liv. Per. 80; Plut. Mar. 44; Vell. Pat. 2.22

87

Q. Ancharius

Pr. ?

Execution

Proscribed and executed by Marius & Cinna

App. Civ. War. 1.73; Plut. Mar. 43

87

C. Cornutus

Pr. 90?

Exile

Proscribed by Marius & Cinna but escaped due to the intervention of his slaves.

App. Civ. War. 1.73; Plut. Mar. 43

87

L. Cornelius Merula

Cos. Suf. 87, Fl. Dialis

Suicide

Committed suicide rather than face proscription by Marius & Cinna.

App. Civ. War. 1.74; Vell. Pat. 2.22

87

Q. Lutatius Catulus

Cos. 102

Suicide

Committed suicide rather than face proscription by Marius & Cinna.

App. Civ. War. 1.74; Vell. Pat. 2.22; Plut. Mar. 44

86

Sex. Lucinus

 

Execution

A Senator executed by Marius. Thrown from the Tarpeian rock.

Plut. Mar. 45; Liv. Per. 80

86 or 85

L. Valerius Flaccus

Cos. Suf. 86

Murder

Sent as an opposition commander to Sulla against Mithridates, murdered by his own legate, C. Flavius Fimbria.

App. Civ. Wars 1.75, Mith. 52; Vell. Pat. 2.24; Liv. Per. 82; Plut. Sull. 12, 23

85

Sex. Lucilius

Tr. Pl. 86

Execution

Thrown from the Tarpeian rock by Tr. Pl. Publius Laenas

Vell. Pat. 2.24

84

C. Flavius Fimbria

Legate of L. Valerius Flaccus

Suicide

Murdered L. Valerius Flaccus and took over his army in Asia. Committed suicide after facing defeat by Sulla.

Liv. Per. 82; Plut. Sull 25, App. Mith. 60; Vell. Pat. 2.24

84

L. Cornelius Cinna (2)

Cos. 87, 86, 85, 94

Mutiny

Killed in a mutiny by his army as Sulla approached Rome following the defeat of Mithridates.

App. Civ. Wars. 1.77-78; Liv. Per. 83; Vell. Pat. 2.24.5

83

Q. Antonius

Pr. 84?

Murder

Killed while governing Sardinia by Sullan legate L. Philippus.

Liv. Per. 86

82

P. Antistius

Tr. Pl. 86

Execution

Executed by Pr. L. Iunius Brutus on the order of Cos. C. Marius Minor while besieged by Sulla in Praeneste. His wife Calpurnia committed suicide shortly thereafter.

App. Civ. Wars. 1.88; Vell. Pat. 2.26; Liv. Per. 86; Plut. Pomp. 9

82

C. Papirius Carbo Arvina

Tr. Pl. 90

Execution

Executed by Pr. L. Iunius Brutus on the order of Cos. C. Marius Minor while besieged by Sulla in Praeneste.

App. Civ. Wars. 1.88; Vell. Pat. 2.26

82

L. Domitius Ahenobarbus

Cos. 94

Execution

Executed by Pr. L. Iunius Brutus on the order of Cos. C. Marius Minor while besieged by Sulla in Praeneste.

App. Civ. Wars. 1.88; Vell. Pat. 2.26

82

Q. Mucius Scaevola

Cos. 95, Pont. Max. 89

Execution

Executed by Pr. L. Iunius Brutus on the order of Cos. C. Marius Minor while besieged by Sulla in Praeneste.

App. Civ. Wars. 1.88; Liv. Per. 86; Vell. Pat. 2.26

82

C. Marius Minor (2)

Cos. 82

Suicide

Committed suicide while beseiged by Sullan forces at Praeneste after giving the order for several Sulla supporters in Rome. (previously exiled by Sulla in 88)

App. Civ. War. 1.94; Plut. Sull. 32, Mar. 46; Liv. Per. 88; Vell. Pat. 27.4; Flor. 3.21

82

M. Iunius Brutus (2)

Pr. 88

Suicide

Committed suicide while in service to Cn. Papirius Carbo rather than face capture by Cn. Pompeius Magnus in Sicily. (Previously exiled by Sulla in 88)

Liv. Per. 89

82

A. Claudius

 

Battle

Killed in battle with Sulla at the Colline Gates outside Rome.

Plut. Sull. 29

82
Venuleius Triumviri Cap. 82 Execution A senator. Proscribed by Sulla. Flor. Epit. 2.9

81

C. Antipater

Legate of C. Norbanus

Murder

Betrayed and murdered by fellow Marian legate P. Tullius Albinovanus in order for Albinovanus to secure a pardon from Sulla.

App. Civ. Wars. 1.91

81

Flavius Fimbria

Legate of C. Norbanus

Murder

Betrayed and murdered by fellow Marian legate P. Tullius Albinovanus in order for Albinovanus to secure a pardon from Sulla. (brother of C. Flavius Fimbria killed in 84)

App. Civ. Wars. 1.91

81

C. Norbanus

Cos. 83

Suicide

After defeat by Sulla, either killed or committed suicide in Rhodes.

App. Civ. Wars. 1.91; Liv. Per. 89; Vell. Pat. 2.25; Plut. Sull. 27

81

Telesinus

Legate of Cn. Papirius Carbo

Battle

Killed at battle of Colline Gates against Sulla

App. Civ. Wars. 1.93

81

Albinus

Legate of Cn. Papirius Carbo

Battle

Killed at battle of Colline Gates against Sulla

App. Civ. Wars. 1.93

81

C. Marcius Censorinus

Legate of Cn. Papirius Carbo

Execution

Captured and executed after the battle of Colline Gates against Sulla

App. Civ. Wars. 1.93

81

C. Carrinas

Pr. 82

Execution

Captured and executed after the battle of Colline Gates against Sulla

App. Civ. Wars. 1.93

81

L. Iunius Brutus Damassipus

Pr. 82

Execution

The praetor who killed several Sullans in 82 by order of C. Marius Minor. Killed in battle of Colline Gates against Sulla or executed after capture.

App. Civ. Wars. 1.93; Sall. Cat. 51; Cass. Dio. 33.109.4

81

Q. Valerius

 

Execution

Executed by Pompeius Magnus after the defeat of Carbo in Africa.

Plut. Pomp. 10

81

Cn. Papirius Carbo

Cos 85, 84, 82

Execution

Executed by Pompeius Magnus in Africa.

App. Civ. Wars. 1.96; Liv. Per. 89; Plut. Pomp. 10

81

Q. Aurelius

 

Execution

1 of 600 otherwise unnamed (according to Plutarch) proscribed and killed by order of Sulla.

Plut. Sulla 31

81

Unknown

 

 

According to Appian, Sulla proscribed some 90 senators, 15 consulars, and 2600 knights.

App. Civ. Wars. 1.103; Cass.Dio. 33.109

81

Q. Caecilius

 

Murder

Proscribed and murdered by Catiline, his brother-in-law. Added to proscription roles after the fact.

Cic. de Petit. Cons. 2; Ascon. in Tog. Cand. p. 84; Plut. Sull. 32, Cic. 10

81

M. Marius Gratidianus

Pr. 85?

Murder

Proscribed and killed by Catiline.

Plut. Sull. 32

81

Q. Lucretius Ofella

candidate for cos. 81

Execution

Killed by order of Sulla after refusing to step down from consular candidacy for which he was legally ineligible.

App. Civ Wars. 1.101, Plut. Sull. 33; Liv. Per. 89

81

Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus

Cos. 87

Battle

Killed in or after battle with Pompeius Magnus

Plut. Pomp. 12; Liv. Per. 89

78

? Granius

Decurio of Puteoli

Execution

Killed by Sulla for failing to pay a tax for the restoration of the capitol in Rome

Plut. Sulla 37; Val. Max. 9.3

77

M. Iunius Brutus

Tr. Pl. 83, Legate of Lepidus

Execution

Father of M. Iunius Brutus (assassin of Caesar). Killed by a Geminius on the order of Pompeius Magnus during the civil insurrection of Lepidus.

Plut. Pomp. 16; Liv. Per. 90

77

M. Aemilius Lepidus

Cos. 78

Exile

Expelled from office and Italy by consular colleague Q. Lutatius Catulus for civil insurrection. Died of natural causes in Sardinia after his forces were defeated and before he could be captured.

App. Civ. War 1.107; Liv. Per. 90

72

Q. Sertorius

Pr. 83

Murder

As leader of an opposition faction in Hispania to the Sullans in Rome, was murdered by or at the order of his legate M. Perpenna Vento.

App. Civ. War 1.113; Liv. Per. 96; Plut. Sert. 26; Vell Pat. 2.30

72

M. Perpenna Vento

Pr. ?

Execution

Put to death by order of Pompeius Magnus after the defeat of Sertorian forces. Originally proscribed by Sulla.

App. Civ. War 1.115; Liv. Per. 96; Plut. Sert. 27; Vell Pat. 2.30

63

A. Fulvius

 

Execution

A Senator. Put to death by his father for participation in the Catiline Conspiracy.

Sall. Cat. 39; Cass.Dio. 37.36

63

P. Cornelius Lentulus Sura

Cos. 71, Pr. 63

Execution

Executed by order of Cicero for complicity in the Catiline conspiracy

App. Civ. Wars. 2.4-6; Sall. Cat. 55; Liv. Per. 102; Plut. Cat. Min 26, Cic. 22; Cass. Dio.37.39; Vell. Pat. 2.34.4

63

C. Cornelius Cethegus

 

Execution

Executed by order of Cicero for complicity in the Catiline conspiracy

App. Civ. Wars. 2.4-6; Sall. Cat. 55; Liv. Per. 102; Plut. Cic. 22; Vell. Pat. 2.34.4

63

L. Statilius

 

Execution

Executed by order of Cicero for complicity in the Catiline conspiracy

App. Civ. Wars. 2.4-6; Sall. Cat. 55;

63

P. Gabinius Capito (C. Gabinius Cimber?)

 

Execution

Executed by order of Cicero for complicity in the Catiline conspiracy

Sall. Cat. 55

63

M. Caeparius

 

Execution

Executed by order of Cicero for complicity in the Catiline conspiracy. Additionally, 4 conspirators were ordered to be arrested and/or convicted in absentia but the actual fate is unknown: L. Cassius Longinus, P. Furius, P. Umbrenus, T. Annius.

Sall. Cat. 55

62

C. Manlius (Mallius)

Legate of Catiline

Battle

Killed in battle with Cos. M. Petreius.

Sall. Cat. 60

62

L. Sergius Catilina

Pr. 68

Battle

Killed in battle with Cos. M. Petreius.

Sall. Cat. 61; Liv. Per. 102; Cass. Dio.37.39; Vell. Pat. 2.35.5

59

L. Vettius

 

Murder

An equestrian partisan of Cicero in the Catiline affair. Murdered in prison after giving testimony in the senate regarding a conspiracy to kill Caesar and Pompeius Magnus.

App. Civ. Wars. 2.12; Plut. Luc. 42; Cass. Dio. 38.9, Cic., Att 2.24, Flac 96, Sest 132, Vatin 24-26; Suet. Caes. 17, 20.5

58

M. Tullius Cicero

Cos. 63

Exile

Exiled by the machinations of the Tr. Pl. Clodius for his execution of citizens without trial in the Catiline affair. Recalled the following year.

App. Civ. Wars. 2.15,16; Liv. Per. 103.9; Plut. Cic. 32; Cass. Dio 38.17; Vell. Pat. 2.45

52

P. Clodius Pulcher

Tr. Pl. 58, Aed. 56

Mob Violence

Murdered by his street gang rival T. Annius Milo or his partisans.

App. Civ. Wars. 2.21; Liv. Per. 107; Plut. Cic. 35; Cass. Dio 40.48; Vell Pat. 47.4

52

T. Annius Milo (1)

Tr. Pl. 57

Exile

Exiled for the murder of P. Clodius.

App. Civ. Wars. 2.24; Liv. Per. 107; Plut. Cic. 35; Cass. Dio 40.53; Vell Pat. 47.4

52

A. Gabinius

Tr. Pl. 66, Pr. 61, Cos. 59

Exile

Exiled for making indiscretionary war and accepting bribes while proconsul in Syria. Recalled by C. Iulius Caesar in 49/48.

App. Civ. Wars. 2.24, 48; Cass. Dio 39.63

52

P. Plautius Hypsaeus

Tr. Pl. 54

Exile

A supporter of Clodius in the street warfare between he and Milo, exiled for election bribery. Recalled by C. Iulius Caesar in 49/48.

App. Civ. Wars. 2.24, 48; Cass. Dio 40.53

52

C. Memmius Gemellus

Tr. Pl. 66, Pr. 58

Exile

Exiled for election bribery. Recalled by C. Iulius Caesar in 49/48.

App. Civ. Wars. 2.24, 48

52

M. Aemilius Scaurus

Pr. 56

Exile

Exiled for election bribery. Recalled by C. Iulius Caesar in 49/48.

App. Civ. Wars. 2.24, 48

52

T. Munatius Plancus Bursa

Tr. Pl. 52

Exile

Condemned as a supporter of Clodius for his role in the street violence between he and Milo. Restored by Caesar c. 48.

Cass. Dio 40.55; Plut. Pomp. 55; Cic. ad Att. VI.1, ad Fam. XII.18, Phil. VI.4, X.10, XI. 6, XII.8, XIII. 12

52

Q. Pompeius Rufus Minor

Tr. Pl. 52

Exile

Condemned as a supporter of Clodius for his role in the street violence between he and Milo.

Cass. Dio 40.55; Cic. ad Q. Fr. III.2, ad Att. IV.16.

49

Q. Fulgenius

 

Battle

Caesarian officer killed at Ilerda, Hispania

Caes. Civ. War 1.46

49

Ti. Caecilius

 

Battle

Pompeian Primus Pilus killed at Ilerda, Hispania

Caes. Civ. War 1.46

49

C. Scribonius Curio

Tr. Pl. 50

Battle

A supporter of Caesar, killed in battle against the Pompeian general P. Attius Varus and the Numidian King Juba in Africa.

App. Civ. Wars 2.45; Cass. Dio 41.41; Caes. Civ. War 2.42; Suet. Caes. 36

48

L. Racilius

Tr. Pl. 56

Mutiny

Failed conspirator against the Caesarian governor of Hispania Q. Cassius Longinus. Executed by Longinus.

Caes.(Hirt.) Alex. War 55

48

L. Iuventius Laterensis

Legate of Q. Cassius Longinus

Mutiny

Failed conspirator against the Caesarian governor of Hispania Q. Cassius Longinus. Executed by Longinus.

Caes.(Hirt.) Alex. War 55

48

Annius Scapula

Legate of Q. Cassius Longinus

Mutiny

Failed conspirator against the Caesarian governor of Hispania Q. Cassius Longinus. Executed by Longinus.

Caes.(Hirt.) Alex. War 55

48

Minutius Silo

 

Mutiny

A client of Racilius. Failed conspirator against the Caesarian governor of Hispania Q. Cassius Longinus. Executed by Longinus.

Caes.(Hirt.) Alex. War 55

48

Munatius Plancus

 

Mutiny

Failed conspirator against the Caesarian governor of Hispania Q. Cassius Longinus. Executed by Longinus.

Caes.(Hirt.) Alex. War 55

48

T. Vasius

 

Mutiny

Failed conspirator against the Caesarian governor of Hispania Q. Cassius Longinus. Executed by Longinus.

Caes.(Hirt.) Alex. War 55

48

L. Mergilio

 

Mutiny

Failed conspirator against the Caesarian governor of Hispania Q. Cassius Longinus. Executed by Longinus.

Caes.(Hirt.) Alex. War 55

48

L. Licinius Squillus

 

Mutiny

Failed conspirator against the Caesarian governor of Hispania Q. Cassius Longinus. Executed by Longinus.

Caes.(Hirt.) Alex. War 55

48

Manilius Tusculus

 

Mutiny

Failed conspirator against the Caesarian governor of Hispania Q. Cassius Longinus. Executed by Longinus.

Caes.(Hirt.) Alex. War 55

48

L. Calpurnius Bibulus

Cos. 59

Battle

Died of sickness while in command of the Republican fleet in the Adriatic. Despite "natural causes" Caesar suggests that Bibulus' death was due to the stress of his command in the civil war.

Caes. Civ. War. 3.18

48

T. Annius Milo (2)

Tr. Pl. 57

Execution

Killed by Pr. Q. Pedius after declaring himself a legate for Pompeius Magnus in the civil war.

Liv. Per. 111; Cass. Dio. 42.25; Caes. Civ. War. 3.22

48

M. Caelius Rufus

Pr. 48

Execution

Provoked riots in Rome, fled the city and joined Milo. Killed by Pr. Q. Pedius.

Liv. Per. 111; Cass. Dio. 42.25; Caes. Civ. War. 3.22

48

V. Flaccus

 

Battle

Son of Pr. L. Flaccus. Caesarian officer killed at Dyrrachium

Caes. Civ. War 3.53

48

A. Granius (Gravius?)

 

Battle

Caesarian officer of equestrian rank killed at Dyrrachium.

Caes. Civ. War. 3.71

48

F. Tuticanus Gallus

 

Battle

Caesarian officer, a senator's son, killed at Dyrrachium.

Caes. Civ. War. 3.71

48

C. Felginus

 

Battle

Caesarian officer of equestrian rank killed at Dyrrachium.

Caes. Civ. War. 3.71

48

M. Sacrativir

 

Battle

Caesarian officer of equestrian rank killed at Dyrrachium.

Caes. Civ. War. 3.71

48

Crastinus

 

Battle

Caesarian officer killed at Pharsalus

Caes. Civ. War 3.99

48

L. Domitius Ahenobarbus

Cos. 54

Battle

Pompeian general killed at Pharsalus

App. Civ. Wars 2.82; Caes. Civ. War 3.99

48

Cn. Pompeius Magnus

Cos. 70, 55, 52

Murder

Executed by agents of the Egyptian King Ptolemy XIII after escaping from Pharsalus

App. Civ. Wars 2.85; Liv. Per. 112, Plut. Caes. 48, Pomp. 79; Cass. Dio 42.4; Caes. Civ. War. 3.104; Vell. Pat. 2.53

48

L. Cornelius Lentulus Crus

Cos. 49

Murder

Followed Pompeius Magnus to Egypt and was captured and executed by Ptolemy.

Caes. Civ. War 3.104; Val. Max. 1.8-9; Oros. 6.15; Plut. Pomp. 80

47

Sex. Iulius Caesar

 

Mutiny

While in command of Caesarian forces in Syria, killed by his soldiers at the instigation of rival Q. Caecilius Bassus.

Caes. Alex. War 66; Cass. Dio. 47.26; App. Civ. War. 3.77; Liv. Per. 114

47

C. Consconius

Tr. Pl. 59, Pr. ?

Mutiny

Killed in a mutiny of Caesar's army at Campania.

Plut. Caes. 51; Cass. Dio. 42.52

47

Galba

Pr.?

Mutiny

Killed in a mutiny of Caesar's army at Campania.

Plut. Caes. 51; Cass. Dio. 42.52

46

M. Porcius Cato

Tr. Pl. 62, Pr. 54

Suicide

Committed suicide in Utica rather than allow capture by Caesar during the civil war.

App. Civ. Wars 2.99; Liv. Per. 114; Plut. Cat. Min. 70-71; Cass. Dio 43.11

46

M. Petreius

Legate of Pompeius Magnus, Pr.?

Suicide

Committed suicide with Numidian King Juba after their defeat to Caesar at Thapsus.

App. Civ. War 2.101; Suet. Caes. 75; Caes. (Hirt.) Afr.War 94; Liv. Per. 114

46

L. Afranius

Cos. 60

Murder

Captured and killed by Caesarian forces (under P. Sittius) after initially escaping from Thapsus. (Possibly ordered by C. Iulius Caesar)

Caes (Hirt.). Afr.War 95; Suet. Caes. 75; Cass.Dio. 43.12; Liv. Per. 114

46

F. Cornelius Sulla

Qua. 54

Murder

Son of the dictator. Captured with L. Afranius and executed by Caesarian adherent P. Sittius or his soldiers. (Possibly ordered by C. Iulius Caesar)

Caes (Hirt.). Afr.War 95; Suet. Caes. 75; Cass.Dio. 43.12; Liv. Per. 114

46

L. Iulius Caesar

Qua.46

Murder

Captured with L. Afranius and executed by Caesarian adherent P. Sittius or his soldiers. (Possibly ordered by C. Iulius Caesar)

Suet. Caes. 75; Cass.Dio. 43.12; Liv. Per. 114; Plut. Cat. Min. 66

46

Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio

Cos. 52

Battle

Killed in a fleet engagement after escaping capture by Caesar's army at Thapsus, Africa.

App. Civ. Wars 2.100; Cass. Dio 43.29; Caes (Hirt). Afr. War 96

46

Licinius Damassipus

 

Battle

Killed along with Metellus Scipio in a fleet engagement after escaping capture by Caesar's army at Thapsus, Africa.

Caes (Hirt). Afr. War 96

46

L. Torquatus

Pr. 49

Battle

Killed along with Metellus Scipio in a fleet engagement after escaping capture by Caesar's army at Thapsus, Africa.

Caes (Hirt). Afr. War 96

46

Plaetorius Rustianus

 

Battle

Killed along with Metellus Scipio in a fleet engagement after escaping capture by Caesar's army at Thapsus, Africa.

Caes (Hirt). Afr. War 96

46

M. Claudius Marcellus

Cos. 51

Murder

An anti-Caesarian living in voluntary exile after the defeat of the Pompeians, was recalled to Rome by Caesar on the efforts of his kinsman C. Marcellus. Murdered en route by his own servant P. Magius Chilo. Though this may be completely apolitical in motivation the suspicion of Caesar is evident enough to include him here.

Liv. Per. 115

45

P. Atius Varus

Pr.?

Battle

Killed in or executed after the battle of Munda by Caesarians.

App. Civ. War 2.105; Caes (Hirt) Span. War 31; Vell. Pat. 2.55.4

45

T. Labienus

Tr. Pl. 63

Battle

Killed in or executed after the battle of Munda by Caesarians.

App. Civ. War 2.105; Caes (Hirt) Span. War 31; Vell. Pat. 2.55.4

45

T. Quintius Scapula

Legate of Pompeius in Hispania

Suicide

Committed suicide by burning himself on a pyre after defeat to Caesar at the battle of Munda.

App. Civ. War 2.105; Caes (Hirt) Span. War 33

45

Cn. Pompeius Magnus Minor

 

Murder

Captured and executed by Caesarians (Caesennius. Lento) after the battle of Munda

App. Civ. War 2.105; Liv. Per. 115; Cass. Dio. 43.40; Caes (Hirt) Span. War 39; Vell. Pat. 2.55.4

45

C. Didius

Legate of Caesar

Battle

Killed in battle with the Lusitanian army of Pompeius Magnus Minor.

Cass. Dio. 43.40; Caes (Hirt) Span. War 40

44

L. Caesetius Flavus

Tr. Pl. 44

Exile

Deposed from office of tribune by Dict. C. Iulius Caesar for public opposition to symbols of monarchy. (Removal of the diadem from Caesar's statues). Recalled after the assassination of Caesar by C. Cassius Longinus and M. Iunius Brutus.

App. Civ. War 2.108; 122; Liv. Per. 116; Plut. Caes. 61; Cass. Dio 44.9; Suet. Caes. 79

44

C. Epidius Marullus

Tr. Pl. 44

Exile

Deposed from office of tribune by Dict. C. Iulius Caesar for public opposition to symbols of monarchy. (Removal of the diadem from Caesar's statues). Recalled after the assassination of Caesar by C. Cassius Longinus and M. Iunius Brutus.

App. Civ. War 2.108; 122; Liv. Per. 116; Plut. Caes. 61; Cass. Dio 44.9; Suet. Caes. 79

44

C. Iulius Caesar

Pont. Max. 63; Cos. 59, 48, 46, 45, 44; Dict. 48, 46, 45; Dict. Perp. 44

Murder

Assassinated by members of the senate for aspirations to monarchy.

App. Civ. War 2.117; Liv. Per. 116; Plut. Caes. 66-67; Cass. Dio 44.19; Suet. Caes. 82; Vell. Pat. 56.3


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Political Violence in the Roman Republic - Related Topics: Late Roman Republic


Bibliography



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