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Roman Timeline 1st Century BC

Roman Timeline 1st Century BC



98 BC

Revolt in Lusitania, Hispania

97 BC Q. Caecilius Metellus Nepos conquers the island of Crete
96 BC The last Ptolemy ruler of Cyrenacia dies, and it is willed over to Rome.
95 BC Sulla is sent to Cappadocia to place King Ariobarzanes on the throne after he was deposed by King Mithridates of Pontus
95 BC Birth of Cato the Younger in Rome.
93 BC T. Didius completes a victory over the Celtiberians in Spain.
91 BC Second Sicilian Slave war ended by Roman general Manius Aquillius.
91 BC The tribune of the plebs M. Livius Drusus tries to legislate for total Italian citizenship.
91 BC The Italian city of Asculum massacres its Roman citizens and prepares for Roman reprisals.
91 - 88 BC Social War between Rome and its Italian allies .
90 BC The legate Gn. Pompeius Strabo creates a blockade around the city of Asculum.
90 BC The consul L. Julius Caesar passes a law, the lex Julia de civitate Latinus et sociis danda, which gives the citizenship to those Italians who had not taken up arms against Rome.
89 BC Roman victories at Nola and Corfinium.
89 BC L. Cornelius Sulla captures the rebel Italian city of Bovianum Vetus.
88 BC Consul Gn. Pompeius Strabo lays siege to Asculum.
88 BC Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius met and defeated the army of the Italian Q. Pompaedius Silo.
88 BC The proconsul Man. Aquillius invades the Pontic territories with the militia of Asia Province and the army of King Nicomedes of Bithynia.
89 - 85 BC First Mithraditic War.
88 BC King Mithridates of Pontus invades Greece and issues an edict that all Romans and Italians are to be killed. The number of dead reaches about 110,000 people.
88 BC L. Cornelius Sulla marches upon Rome, the first in history to do so.
87 - 86 BC Marius marches on Rome with L. Cornelius Cinna, and after a short battle, he occupied Rome. Marius and Cinna are made joint consuls. Proscriptions against Sulla's supporters. This ceased when Marius died of a third and fatal stroke in 86, during his seventh consulship
86 BC Sulla conquers Athens, defeat Mithridates armies at Chaeronea and Orchomenus.
86 BC The orator M. Tullius Cicero completes his first work on rhetoric, De Inventione Rhetorica.
85 BC Treaty of Dardanus with Mithridates.
84 BC The new Italian citizens enfranchised by the lex Julia, lex Pompeia and lex Papiria are redistributed throughout all thirty-five tribes of Rome.
83 BC The Roman governor of Spain and future triumvir M. Licinius Crassus joins forces with Sulla.
83 BC L. Cornelius Sulla lands in Italy at the port city of Brundisium, and wages a civil war against the remaining Marian forces.
83 BC L. Licinius Murena starts up a war against Mithridates.
82 BC The battle of Clusium, which is indecisive occurs under the Marian general Gn. Papirius Carbo against L. Cornelius Sulla.
82 BC Battle of Faventia, in which the Sullan general Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius defeated the army of Gn. Papirius Carbo.
82 BC After suffering defeats by Mithridates, Murena is recalled to Rome on the pretext of celebrating a triumph. L. Cornelius Sulla and Mithridates agree to a new peace treaty.
82 BC Gn. Papirius Carbo flees to Sicily, where he is captured by the Sullan general Gn. Pompeius Magnus and executed in the town of Lilybaeum.
82 BC Birth of Marcus Antonius.
82 BC L. Cornelius Sulla is victorious at the battle of the Coline Gate at Rome.
81 BC Sulla appointed dictator and reforms the constitution.
81 BC Julius Caesar is forced to divorce his wife by Sulla, but he refuses and flees to Asia and joins in the campaign against Mithridates.
80 BC The start of the Sertorian War under Q. Sertorius in Spain, one of the remaining Marian generals.
80 BC G. Julius Caesar goes with an army under L. Licinius Lucullus to suppress a revolt at the city of Mitylene on the island of Lesbos. He is awarded the corona civica (oak crown) for saving a cohort from destruction.
80 BC M. Tullius Cicero has his first major case defending Sex. Roscius against the proscriptions of Sulla. He wins, and publishes the trial as Pro Sextius Roscius Amerino.
79 BC The city of Nola surrenders during the Italian War and the city is razed to the ground.
79 BC Sulla resigns the dictatorship.
78 BC Death of L. Cornelius Sulla, in a villa outside the city of Puteoli.
78 BC P.Servilis starts three year campaign against pirates, accompanied by Julius Caesar.
78 BC The revolt of the anti-Sullan consul M. Aemilius Lepidus. Routed by Q. Lutatius Catulus at a battle near the Quirinal hill at Rome.
77 BC Julius Caesar conducts his first trial. He prosecutes the governor of Macedonia, Gn. Cornelius Dolabella Minor.
77 BC The remnants of the defeated army of the rebel Lepidus join the forces of Q. Sertorius in Spain.
77 BC Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey) arrives in Spain.
76 BC Metellus Pius inflicts a minor defeat on the Sertorian lieutenant L. Hirtuleius.
76 BC P. Servilius Vatia ejects the pirates from Pamphylia, destroying the stronghold of a pirate admiral known as Zenecities.
75 BC Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius annihilates the army of the Sertorian lieutenant Lucius Hirtuleius at the Battle of Segovia.
75 BC The Roman general Gn. Pompeius Magnus is defeated in a battle with Q. Sertorius near the River Sucro and later enters an indecisive battle near the town of Saguntum.
75 BC Caesar captured by pirates.
74 - 64 BC Third Mithradatic War.
74 BC The Roman consular M. Aurelius Cotta is defeated in a battle near the town of Chalcedon.
74 BC Creation of the new Roman province of Bithynia, later renamed Bithynia-Pontus. Cyrenaica also made a Roman province.
74 BC M. Antonius makes slight inroads into the pirate menace in the western seas, thereby helping Pompeius Magnus against Q. Sertorius.
73 - 71 BC Slave war of Spartacus.
73 BC L. Licinius Lucullus defeats a Pontic squadron off Lemnos under an admiral named Archelaeus.
72 BC End of the Sertorian War. Q. Sertorius is killed in Spain, murdered by his legate M. Perperna Viento.
72 BC L. Licinius Lucullus engages in a battle with an invading force of Thracian tribes, and defeats them.
72 BC M. Antonius transfers his fleets to the Aegean region, where he firstly suffers a naval defeat off the island of Crete, and then is defeated again in a land battle on Crete.
71 BC End of the Third Servile War, when Spartacus' army is defeated in Lucania by M. Licinius Crassus. The 6,000 survivors are crucified down the length of the Via Appia.
71 BC Capture of the town of Heraclea by M. Aurelius Cotta.
70 BC The consuls are M. Licinius Crassus (first time) and Gn. Pompeius Magnus (first time).
70 BC The defeat of Mithridates forces near the fortress of Cabira.
70 BC Passing of the lex Aurelia.
70 BC Marcus Tullius Cicero prosecutes the governor G. Verres on behalf of his Sicilian clients.
70 BC The kingdom of Pontus is annexed and created into a new province by L. Licinius Lucullus.
70 BC Birth of the great Roman poet Virgil, near Mantua, in Cisalpine Gaul.
69 BC Birth of Cleopatra, queen of Egypt.
69 BC Pirates attack the port of Ostia.
69 BC L. Licinius Lucullus invades Armenia.
69 BC Pirates sack Delos.
68 BC Julius Caesar marries Pompeia Sulla, the granddaughter of Sulla and a relative of Gn. Pompeius Magnus.
68 BC L. Licinius Lucullus defeats the combined forces of King Mithridates and King Tigranes near Artaxata.
68 - 67 BC The ex-consul Q. Caecilius Metellus fights two hard campaigns against the pirates of Crete, subdues the island and annexes it as a Roman province.
67 BC The tribune A. Gabinius passes his lex Gabinia. This gives a command to Gn. Pompeius Magnus, who is given unlimited imperium on water to fight against the growing pirate menace.
67 BC Mithradates defeats Lucullus at Zela. Lucullus stripped of command.
67 BC Pompey takes command in the east and creates the province of Syria.
66 BC A law passed by a tribune of the plebs, the lex Manlia, gives Pompey the command against the two kings Mithridates and Tigranes.
66 BC Gn. Pompeius Magnus defeats King Mithridates at the battle of Dastria.
63 BC Death of Mithradates. Cicero elected Consul. Caesar elected Pontifex Maximus. Birth of Octavian (Augustus) and Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa.
62 BC Pompey settles matters in the east, returns to Italy and disbands his army.
62 BC Julius Caesar is elected as praetor.
59 BC Caesar elected Consul and the First Triumvirate is formed by M. Licinius Crassus, Gn. Pompeius Magnus and G. Julius Caesar.
59 BC Birth of the Roman historian Livy the Elder, who was born in the city of Patavium, Italy.
59 BC Lex Vatinia was passed, which gave Caesar the governorship of Cisalpine Gaul and Illyricum for five years.
58 - 51 BC Caesar's War against the Gauls.
58 BC Cicero exiled. Cyprus annexed by Clodius, which is overseen by M. Porcius Cato. Caesar defeats Helvetii and Ariovistus.
58 BC King Ptolemy Auletes of Egypt is driven out of Alexandria.
57 BC Gangs under P. Clodius Pulcher and T. Annius Milo start street warfare in Rome. Return of Cicero.
57 BC G. Julius Caesar subdues the tribes of the Belgae, such as the Nervii and the Atrebates.
56 BC Caesar suppresses the revolt of the Gallic Morini.
56 BC Conference of the First Triumvirate at Luca.
55 BC Caesar defeats two immigrating German tribes, the Usipetes and Tencteri, then bridges the Rhine to invade Germania. (first Roman to do so)
55 BC Caesar invades Britannia.
55 BC Gn. Pompeius Magnus builds and dedicates the first stone theatre in Rome near the Campus Martius.
55 BC M. Tullius Cicero writes his work, De Oratore.
54 BC Caesar's second invasion of Britannia. Crassus prepares for war against Parthia.
54 BC A. Gabinius is sent to Egypt to restore King Ptolemy Auletes to his throne in Alexandria.
53 BC

Nervii revolt in Gaul, and other revolts force Caesar to abandon Britain.

53 - 52 BC More rioting in Rome.
53 BC Vercingetorix revolts in Gaul
53 BC Defeat of Roman Army at the Battle of Carrhae against the Parthians under the Triumvir M. Licinius Crassus, who is killed in the battle.
52 BC T. Labienus defeats an army of Gauls under the command of Camulogenus near the site of Lutetia.
52 BC Caesar builds two sets of fortifications 42 miles and lays Siege to Alesia. With approximately 42,000 men, Caesar besieges 100,000 Gauls within the fort and holds out 250,000 men in a relief force on the outside.
52 BC The provinces of Belgica, Aquitania and Lugdunesis are created.
52 BC Gn. Pompeius Magnus is elected as consul without a colleague in an attempt to prevent him from assuming the dictatorship.
51 BC The Parthians invade the province of Syria after the defeat of Crassus.
49 - 45 BC Civil War between Caesar and the Republican forces of Pompey.
49 BC Caesar crosses the Rubicon.
49 BC Caesar surrounds the Pompeian commander L. Domitius Ahenobarbus and three legions at Corfinium.
49 BC Battle of Utica in Africa, G. Scribonius Curio defeats a large number of Numidian horse and foot sent by King Juba to aid Attius Varus.
49 BC The Pompeian legates M. Petronius and L. Afranius are defeated by Caesar at the battle of Ilerda.
48 BC Caesar defeated at the Battle of Dyrrachium, then defeats Pompey at Pharsalus.
48 BC Death of Pompey the Great, decapitated in Egypt by Ptolemy XII.
47 BC While in Alexandria to sort out the dynastic dispute between the Ptolemies, Caesar is attacked and trapped in the palace quarter of Alexandria by the young King Ptolemy XII.
47 BC Battle of Zela, with Caesar and his army against Pharnaces of Pontus, a son of Mithridates, and his army. Famous quote veni, vidi, vici (I came, I saw, I conquered).
47 BC The tenth legion, Caesar's favorite from the Gallic Wars, mutinies and marches on Rome. Caesar stops the mutiny.
46 BC Battle of Thapsus in Africa. Caesar destroyed the Pompeian garrison under Q. Metellus Scipio.
46 BC Caesar reforms the Roman calendar via Egyptian astrologists. Aside from the later Gregorian adjustments, the months and number of days virtually coincides with today's calendar. The Julian calendar is introduced to Rome, and the month of Caesar's birthday, Quinctillis, is renamed as Julius (July).
45 BC Republican forces defeated at Munda.
45 BC Cicero publishes his work, Academica.
44 BC Ides of March. March 15, Caesar murdered by Brutus, Cassius, and their co-conspirators acting for the Republicans. Octavian returns from Greece.
44 BC Cicero completes his work De Officiis.
44 - 43 BC M. Tullius Cicero delivers the '12 Phillipics' against M. Antonius, in order to urge the senate to declare war against Antonius.
43 BC A battle at Forum Gallorum between Octavian and Antony.
43 BC Brutus is defeated and killed in Gaul by M. Antonius.
43 BC Murder of Cicero. Birth of the Roman writer Ovid, in the city of Sulmo, Italy.
42 BC Julius Caesar deified.
42 BC The second battle of Phillipi in which the assassin of Caesar, G. Cassius Longinus, is killed by G. Julius Caesar Octavianus and M. Antonius.
41 BC The Perusine war in Italy, under command of Octavian Lucius Antonius defeated.
43 & 40 BC Founding and reconfirmation of the Second Triumvirate between Octavian, Antony and Lepidus.
40 BC Herod is appointed as king of Judaea by the Senate.
40 BC A Parthian invasion, under Pacorus of Syria takes place.
39 - 38 BC An army of reinforcements under P. Ventidius defeats the Parthian invasion at the battles of Mt. Amanus and Mt. Gindarus.
37 BC Antony marries Cleopatra at Antioch.
37 - 31 BC The Roman poet Horace writes the Satires.
36 BC The son of Gn. Pompeius Magnus, Sex. Pompeius Magnus Pius is defeated by the legate of Octavian, M. Vipsanius Agrippa.
36 BC Triumvirate breaks up when M. Aemilius Lepidus is removed from power by Octavian.
36 BC Battle between Antony and a Parthian army under the command of King Phraates IV near Phraaspa.
31 BC Battle of Actium. Octavian (Agrippa) defeats Antonius and Cleopatra and effectively takes control of the entire empire.
30 BC Death of Antony and Cleopatra in Alexandria.
30 BC Egypt is annexed as an imperial province of Rome.
30 BC The Roman writer and poet, Horace, completes his work the Epodes.
29 BC The doors of the temple of Janus are closed ushering in the Pax Romana or Roman Peace. Dedication of Temple of Divus Julius.
28 BC Octavian named Princeps Senatus.
27 BC Octavian named Augustus and is officially the first Emperor of Rome.
27 BC The Praetorian Guard is established by Augustus.
27 - 25 BC Augustus directs the final subjugation of Spain and the administrative reorganization of Spain and Gaul.
25 BC The province of Galatia is annexed into the Empire.
23 BC The Senate grants Augustus the titles and powers of Imperium proconsulare maius and tribunicia potestas for life, giving him complete control of the State and ending the Roman Republic
23 BC The Roman writer Horace completes his works the Odes.
22 BC Abolishment of the office of censor.
20 BC Augustus recovers the standards of the legions lost by Crassus from the Parthians.
20 BC Reconstruction on the Great Temple in Jerusalem is begun by King Herod Agrippa.
19 BC The Roman poet Virgil completes one of the great literary pieces in history, the Aeneid, shortly before his death.
19 BC The arch of Augustus is constructed in Rome.
18 BC Birth of the Germanic leader Arminius.
17 BC Establishment of the ludi seculares, or the secular games, in honor of Augustus.
16 BC The province of Noricum is incorporated in the Empire.
15 BC Tiberius and Drusus both defeat the Germanic tribes of the Vindelici and Rhaeti.
13 BC Dedication of the theatre of Marcellus in Rome.
13 - 9 BC Campaigns against Pannonia and Germania.
12 BC Death of Agrippa.
9 BC The Ara Pacis Augustae (Altar to Augustan Peace) is completed.
5 BC Estimated date of the birth of Jesus Christ.
2 BC Construction of the Forum of Augustus is completed.
2 BC The Dedication of the temple of Mars Ultor in Rome.

Did you know?

Caesar decided to use a solar measure of time that became known as the Julian calendar. This Julian calendar is the basis of the modern calendar. He also changed the name of the month Quintilis to Julius (July), after himself.


Roman Timeline 1st Century BC - Related Topic: Roman Legion


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