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Roman Province Chronology

Chronology of the Provincial Expansion of the Roman Empire

Year of Earliest Influence
Year Made Official Province
Province
Influential Events
Fall from Empire
509 BC
272 BC
Italia (Final Consolidation) Though not technically a "province", it's included for contextual purposes. Beginning of expansion after removal of the Etruscan Kings. Latin Wars, Samnite Wars, Pyrrhic War. Additional consolidation of allied cities took place after the 2nd Punic War. 476 AD (Germanics)
241 BC
241 BC
Sicilia

C. Lutatius Catulus - Conquest during the First Punic War. Syracuse fell to Roman authority in 212 BC.

436 AD (Vandals)
238 BC
238 BC
Sardinia & Corsica Invasions by L. Cornelius Scipio during the 1st Punic War (259 BC). Annexed as a result of Roman victory in that war 238 BC. 436 AD (Vandals)
206 BC
197 BC
Hispania Ulterior (Later Baetica) P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus - Second Punic War. Largely Romanized after the conquest of the Turdetani by Cato Major in the 190's BC and established as part of Hispania Ulterior in 197 BC. Ulterior was split in two and reorganized as Baetica by Augustus after 27 BC. 409 AD (Alani, Seuvi, Vandals, Visigoths)
206 BC
197 BC
Hispania Ulterior (Later Lusitania) Scipio Africanus - 2nd Punic War. Established as part of Hispania Ulterior in 197 BC, though this province was particularly hostile until final conquest in the 20's BC. Ulterior was split in two and reorganized as Baetica by Augustus after 27 BC 409 AD (Alani, Seuvi, Vandals, Visigoths)
206 BC
197 BC
Hispania Citerior (Later Terraconensis) Scipio Africanus - 2nd Punic War. Established as Hispania Citerior in 197 BC before being reorganized as Tarraconensis after 27 BC by Augustus. 409 AD (Alani, Seuvi, Vandals, Visigoths)
202 BC
146 BC
Africa Though independent after the 2nd Punic War, it was a tributary of Rome (202 BC). P. Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus incorporated the province with victory in the 3rd Punic War. Split into 2 provinces with Numidia by Septimius Severus in AD 197. 409 AD (Alani, Seuvi, Vandals, Visigoths)
202 BC
81 BC
Gallia Cisalpina Conquered during the Second Punic War was established as a province in 81 BC. 418 AD (Visigoths)
188 BC
AD 43
Lycia & Pamphylia Client status after the defeat of Antiochus III of Seleucia, reorganized by Pompey (66 - 63 BC) but officially annexed by Claudius Remained part of the Byzantine or Romaion Empire until the 14th Cent. AD
188 BC
133 BC
Asia Minor Several small kingdoms made up the entirety of what eventually became a combined Asia Minor. For the most part it held client status after the defeat of Antiochus III of Seleucia 188 BC. One client, Pergamum, was willed to Rome by King Attalus III in 133 BC, though it was distributed to other client states for governing. Parts of the province fell in and out of Roman control until after the conquests of Lucullus and Pompey (70's - 60's BC) Remained part of the Byzantine or Romaion Empire until the 15th Cent. AD
168 BC
59 BC

Illyricum (Dalmatia)

Occupied in part in 168 BC after the Illyrian/Macedonian Wars, established as a part of Cisalpine Gaul in 59 BC (Lex Vatinia) and eventually established as Illyricum after 27 BC by Augustus. After revolts in Pannonia were put down the province was reorganized as Dalmatia in AD 9. Remained part of the Byzantine or Romaion Empire until the 14th Cent. AD
168 BC
148 BC
Epirus Conquered by Aemilius Paullus - 3rd Macedonian War. Organized as a province with Macedonia after the 4th war. Remained part of the Byzantine or Romaion Empire until the 11th Cent. AD
168 BC
AD 46
Thracia Client status established sometime after the defeat of Macedonia in the 3rd Macedonian War, though direct control was probably more assertive after the annexation of Macedonia in 148 BC. Annexed by Claudius in AD 46 after the murder of King Rhoemetalces by his wife. Remained partly (Southern Thracia) with the Byzantine or Romaion Empire until the 13th Cent. AD
148 BC
148 BC
Macedonia Q. Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus - 4th Macedonian War Organized as a province with Epirus. Remained part of the Byzantine or Romaion Empire until the 11th Cent. AD
146 BC
27 BC
Achaea 4th Macedonian War under Lucius Memmius, organized as an official province by Octavian. Heavy influence as early as 196 BC after the defeat of Philip of Macedonia by T. Quictius Flaminius. Remained part of the Byzantine or Romaion Empire until the 11th Cent. AD
121 BC
121 BC
Gallia Transalpina (Narbonensis) Conquest of the Allobroges by Domitius Ahenobarbus. 418 AD (Visigoths)
121 BC - 51 BC
14 BC
Alpes Maritimae Authority established sometime between the conquest of Narbonensis and Caesar's Gallic Wars. Officially made a province by Augustus in 14 BC. 5th Cent. AD (Germanic tribes)
121 BC - 51 BC
14 BC
Alpes Graiae et Poeniniae Authority established sometime between the conquest of Narbonensis and Caesar's Gallic Wars. Officially made a province by Augustus in 14 BC. 5th Cent. AD (Germanic tribes)
121 BC - 51 BC
AD 58
Alpes Cottiae Authority established sometime between the conquest of Narbonensis and Caesar's Gallic Wars. Formally Annexed by Nero by AD 58. 5th Cent. AD (Germanic tribes)
106 BC
197 AD
Numidia Probable client status dating from the end of the 2nd Punic War (202 BC) but definate regional authority after the defeat of Jugurtha in 106 BC. Incorporated as a part of Africa after the death of King Bocchus II in 33 BC. Numidia made it's own official province after Africa is split by Septimius Severus in AD 197. 5th Cent. AD (Vandals)
106 BC
AD 44
Mauretania (Tingitana, Caesarensis) Some influence at least since the destruction of Carthage in 146 BC. King Bocchus was likely established as client after the defeat of Jugurtha in 106 BC, though various tribes maintained independent kings in parts of the territory (especially farther west). Formal annexation and split into 2 provinces by Claudius. 5th Cent. AD (Vandals)
102 BC
64 BC
Cilicia Campaigns of Marcus Antonius (grandfather of the triumvir) in 102 BC and official recognition in 64 BC after Pompey. Various re-organizations by Caesar, Augustus and Vespasian. Remained part of the Byzantine or Romaion Empire until the 7th Cent. AD and reincorporated in the 9th.
96 BC
74 BC
Cyrenaica Willed to Rome by the Ptolemaic King Apion. Made a province in 74 BC and reorganized by Pompey as a joint province with Crete in 66 BC. Remained part of the Byzantine or Romaion Empire until the 7th Cent. AD.
74 BC
64 BC
Bithynia et Pontus Bithynia ceded to Rome by King Nicomedes IV in 74 BC, but was made a joint province with Pontus by Pompey after victory over King Mithridates of Pontus. Remained part of the Byzantine or Romaion Empire until the 15th Cent. AD
68 BC
66 BC
Crete Failed invasion of Marcus Antonius (father of the triumvir) in 74 and conquest by Quintus Caecilius Metellus Creticus between 68 and 63 BC. Organized as a joint province with Cyrenaica by Pompeius Magnus Remained part of the Byzantine or Romaion Empire until the 13th Cent. AD
64 BC
64 BC
Syria Annexed by Pompey after the Lex Gabinia but under some Roman influence since the defeat of Antiochus III in 189 BC. Remained part of the Byzantine or Romaion Empire until the 7th Cent. AD
64 BC
30 BC
Aegyptus Pompey established the Ptolemies as nominal clients after the Lex Gabinia. Octavian annexed the province as a personal possession in 30 BC. Remained part of the Byzantine or Romaion Empire until the 8th Cent. AD
64 BC
25 BC
Galatia Established as a client after the defeat of Mithridates and the reorganization of the east by Pompey (Lex Gabinia). Annexed by Augustus after the death of client king Amyntas in 25 BC. Remained part of the Byzantine or Romaion Empire until the 11th Cent. AD
64 BC
AD 6
Judaea Nominal client authority after the eastern conquests of Pompey. Jewish kings held client status even after the official incorporation of the province in AD 6 and after the Flavian conquests of the 60's - 70's AD (Agrippa II died AD 100). Remained part of the Byzantine or Romaion Empire until the 7th Cent. AD
64 BC
AD 17
Cappadocia Some influence dating to the Seleucid war of Antiochus III (189 BC), but authority established after the defeat of Mithridates and Pompey's reorganization of the east (64 BC). Official annexation under Tiberius after the death of client king Archelaus. Remained part of the Byzantine or Romaion Empire until the 11th Cent. AD
64 BC
AD 114
Armenia Client status under Pompey in 64 BC but that status was disputed with Parthia for the next century. Annexed by Trajan in AD 114 upon deposing King Chosroes. 117 AD Withdrawal by Hadrian, though disputed influence clearly remained.
58 BC
58 - 30 BC
Cyprus Annexed based upon the will of Ptolemy XII in 58, gifted to Cleopatra by M. Antonius (triumvir) and re-annexed by Octavian in 30. Remained part of the Byzantine or Romaion Empire until the 12th Cent. AD
54 BC
AD 43
Britannia Arguable authority after Caesar's invasions followed with conquest by Aulus Plautius and annexation by Claudius. 5th Cent. AD (Anglos and Saxons)
51 BC
51 BC
Gallia Aquitania Caesar's Gallic War. Additional conquest under Agrippa in 38 BC and provincial re-organization from 2 to 3 provinces by Augustus after 27 BC. 5th Cent. AD (Germanic tribes)
51 BC
51 BC
Gallia Belgica Caesar's Gallic War. Provincial re-organization from 2 to 3 provinces by Augustus after 27 BC. 5th Cent. AD (Germanic tribes)
51 BC
51 BC
Gallia Celtica (Lugdenensis) Caesar's Gallic War. Provincial re-organization from 2 to 3 provinces by Augustus after 27 BC. 5th Cent. AD (Germanic tribes)
27 BC
27 BC
Germania Inferior & Superior Organized by Augustus from the provinces of Gaul as a military buffer zone after 27 BC 5th Cent. AD (Germanic tribes)
50? BC
15 BC
Noricum Had been an ally and perhaps client since Caesar's Gallic wars. After a joint invasion of Istria by the Noricans and the Pannonians was defeated by Publius Silius in 16 BC Noricum was organized as a unique client kingdom under the authority of a Roman governor. Made a traditional province under Claudius in AD 40. 5th Cent. AD (Germanic tribes)
35 BC
AD 10
Pannonia (Superior & Inferior) Campaigns of Octavian in 35 BC, followed by those of Tiberius in 9 BC. Part of the province was originally incorporated with Illyricum but was split after the revolts that were eventually put down by Tiberius in AD 9. Organized as Pannonia sometime after AD 10. Trajan split Pannonia into Inferior and Superior between AD 102 and 107 to coincide with the conquest of Dacia. 5th Cent. AD (Germanic tribes)
29 BC
AD 6
Moesia (Superior & Inferior) Campaigns of Marcus Licinius Crassus (grandson of 1st triumvir). Organized as a province by Augustus in AD 6. Split into 2 provinces by Domitian in AD 85. 5th Cent. AD (Germanic tribes)
15 BC
15 BC
Raetia Augustus - Danube campaigns of Tiberius & Drusus Germanicus 5th Cent. AD (Germanic tribes)
AD 105
AD 105
Arabia Petraea Conquest by A. Cornelius Palma under Trajan. Remained part of the Byzantine or Romaion Empire until the 8th Cent. AD
AD 106
AD 106
Dacia Conquest of Trajan. Reorganized into 2 provinces by Hadrian and into 3 by Marcus Aurelius. 275 AD (Goths)
AD 116
AD 116
Mesopotamia Campaigns of Trajan, though disputed with Parthia/Persia and parts changed hands over the course of the next 6 centuries. Remained part of the Byzantine or Romaion Empire until the 7th Cent. AD
AD 195
AD 195
Osrhoene Annexed by Severus along with his reincorporation of Mesopotamia. Kings deposed by Caracalla in AD 211 Remained part of the Byzantine or Romaion Empire until the 7th Cent. AD

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Roman Province Chronology


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