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101 Statesman of the Roman Republic (509-43 BCE)

Era

Statesman
Notations
509-500 (Birth of the Republic)


L. Junius Brutus (cos. 509)
first consul, expelled the Etruscan Kings
P. Valerius Publicola (cos. 509-507)
first consul; first triumphator; reinstated the senate; created the treasury and quaestorship; legalised regicide, allowed plebeian appeals; invited the Claudian gens and clientele of 5000 to Rome
Cn Marcius Coriolanus (pr? 508)
reconciled Rome with the Volscians
501-272 (Conquest of Italy)

S. Cassius Vecellinus (cos. 502, 493, 486)
defeated Sabines
Q. Fabius Vibulanus (cos. 485, 482) defeated Volscii and Aequii
K. Fabius Vibulanus (cos. 484, 481, 479)
defeated Veientes, opposed agrarian laws
M. Fabius Vibulanus (cos. 483, 480)
defeated Veientes; hero of Cremera
T. Quinctius Capitolinus Barbatus (cos. 471, 468, 465, 446, 443, 439)
defeated Volcii; settled Antium; defeated Aequii; foiled putsch by Spurius Maelius
L. Quinctius Cincinnatus (imp 458, 439)
appointed dict. to save Rome from Aequians
Appius Claudius (cos 471, 451; decemvir 451, 450)
completed Law of Twelve Tables; introduced lictors; abduction of Verginia sparked revolt, his suicide
M. Furius Camillus (dict. 396, 390, 389, 368, 367)
defeated Veientines, Faliscans, Fidenates, Volscians, Praenestians, Antiates, Etruscans; expelled Gauls from Rome
G. Licinius Stolo (tr. 376-367), L. Sextius passed Lex Licinia Sextia: restored consulship and opened it to plebs
M Fabius Ambustus (cos 360, 358, 354)
Princeps Senatus; conquered Hernici, Falisci, Tarquinienses, Tiburtes; repeatedly violated Licinian law
M. Popilius Laenas (cos 359, 356, 350, 348)
repulsed Tiburtines; prosecuted Licinius Stolo for violating his own agrarian laws; first plebeian triumphator for victory over Gauls
G. Marcus Rutilus (cos. 357, 352, 344, 342)
first plebeian consul, dictator, censor; defeated Etruscans
T. Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus (cos. 340)
defeated revolting Latin allies at Veseris, Volsci, Auruncii, Campanians, Sidicini; Equites Campani granted civitas
M. Valerius Maximus Corvus (cos 348, 346, 343, 335, 300, 299; imp 301)
defeated Gauls, Volsci, Samnites, Marsi, Etruscans; captured Cales and founded colony; enforced Ogulnian law opening religious colleges to plebs
L Papirius Cursor (cos 333, 326, 320, 219, 315, 313)
defeated Samnites; obliged by senate and assemblies to pardon Fabius' engagement at Imbrivium; avenged loss at Caudium; celebrated 4 triumphs
Q. Fabius Maximus Rullianus (cos 322, 310, 308, 301, 297, 296)
defeated Samnites; received Camerinum in alliance; pacified Perusia, Cortuna, Arretium; defeated combined army of Samnites, Gauls, Etruscans, and Umbrians at Sentinum
A. Claudius Caecus (cen 312; cos. 307, 296; interrex 299 )
commisioned Appian aqueduct and Appian road to Capua; defeated Etruscans, Samnites; purged plebeian candidates
L. Cornelius Scipio Scapula Barbatus (cos 298)
defeated the Samnite Linen Legion, took Aquilonia, Taurasia, Cisauna; subdued Lucania
Q Fabius Maximus Gurges (cos 292, 276, 265)
built Venereal temple near Circus Maximus; defeated by Pentrian Samnites; granted several triumphs for victories over Samnites; princeps senatus, like father and grandfather
M. Curius Dentatus (cos 290, 275, 274; cen 272)
restored plebeian candidates; decisively defeated Samnites, Pyrrhus, Lucanians, Bruttians; built Aniensis Vetus aqueduct and Fall of Terni
264-202 (First and Second Punic Wars)

Marcus Atilius Regulus (cos 267, 256)
defeated Sabelli, captured Brundisium; first consul in war with Carthage; captured Aspis, Tunis; defeated by Xanthippus; by legend, sacrificed himself to continue war
Gn. Cornelius Scipio Asina (cos 260, 254)
built first corvus navy; naval blunder led to capture; released by Carthage, captured Panormus
P. Appius Claudius Pulcher (cos 249)
after killing Sacred Chickens, lost 93 of 120 ships to Adherbal in worst naval defaeat in Roman history; charged with perduellio, Pulcher died before trial
G. Lutatius Catulus (cos. 242)
captured 70 and sunk 50 Punic ships in brilliant naval victory against Hanno; forced Hamilcar to accept harsh terms of peace, ending First Punic War; celebrated triumph
Q. Fulvius Flaccus (237, 224, 212, 209)
defeated Ligurians, Gauls, Insubrians; sent army and navy to Sardinia; defeated Carthaginians at Beneventum; cruelly subdued Capua.
C. Flaminius (cos 223, 217)
carried lex Ager Gallicus Picenus, agrarian bill causing war with Cisalpine Gauls; built Circus Flaminius and Via Flaminia; passed bill forbidding Roman senators from engaging in sea trade; led army to destruction at lake Trasimenus
P. Cornelius Scipio (cos. 218)
defeated Hasdrubal in Spain; defeated by Hannibal at Trebia
M. Claudius Marcellus (cos 222, 215, 214, 210, 208)
ended Gallic war through decisive victory over Insubrians; checked Hannibal at Nola, capturing Numidian and Spanish horse; captured Syracusa; defeated Carthaginians under Hanno; liberated allied Salapia from Hannibal; caused Hannibal's retreat to Bruttium
Q. Fabius Maximus Verrucosus 'Cunctator' (cos 233, 228, 215, 214, 209)
Princeps senatus; opposed lex Flaminia; saved Rome from utter defeat after Cannae; recaptured Casilinum and Tarentum
M. Livius Salinator (cos. 219, 207)
successfully campaiged against Illyrians; found guilty of malfeasance during mission in Carthage; with Nero, blocked the advance of Hasdrubal at Metaurus, effectively ending the Carthaginian campaign in Italy
P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major (cos. 205, 194)
saved father at Tricenus and remanants of army from Cannae; proconsul in Spain, captured Carthago Nova, defeated Hasdrubal at Baecula, and by his victories at Elinga and Gades, drove Carthage from Spain; elected unanimously as consul at age 30, raised Allied army to supplement consular one in Sicily, crossed over to Near Utica, whence he defeated armies of Hasdrubal, Syphax, and ultimately Hannibal at Zama; refused lifetime dictatorship, later served as princeps senatus, thereafter claiming to receive guidance from Jove directly; after a questionable affair with the enemy Antiochus, Scipio was prosecuted by the tribune Naevius, but was acquitted and went into voluntary exile
199-146 (Third Punic and Macedonian Wars)

T. Quinctius Flamininus (cos 198)
governor of Tarentum, conquered Narnia; detached Achaean League from Macedon and defeated Philip V at Cynoscephalae; famously 'liberated' Greece at Isthmian Games, crushed Sparta, and won Thebes with a speech; devoted philhellene, opposed by Cato the Censor
M. Porcius Cato (cos 195; censor 184)
intimate of Fabius, hero of Metaurus, subjected Hispania Citerior; sponsored second Lex Porcia, observing plebeian right to appeal magisterial decisions; restored plebeian games; with former patron and princeps senatus L Valerius Flaccus, opposed repeal of Oppian (sumptuary) laws; winning 44 of 45 legal cases, successfully opposed Cornelii, Quinctii; famously advocated destruction of Carthage; opposing Hellenization, wrote De Agricultura in Latin; built Basilica Porcia, first basilica in Rome
M Fulvius Nobilior (cos 189)
conquered Achaea; patron of Ennius; erected temples to Hercules and the Muses; devoted philhellene, opposed by Cato the Censor
L. Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus (cos 190)
serving under brother Africanus in Spain, took Oringis in 208; in 190, defeated Antiochus at Mt Sipylus (Magnesia), assumed surname Asiaticus as triumphator; generous terms of peace with Antiochus led to charges of bribery, and Africanus' haughty reply to charges led to Asiaticus incurring a ruinous fine
M. Aemilius Lepidus (cos 187, 175)
six-time princeps senatus; as boy, won grass crown; tutor to Ptolemy V; conquered Ligurians; elected pontifex maximus; extended Via Flaminia from Ariminum to Aquileia

L. Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus (cos 182, 168)
renowned integrity, prosecuted pecaurii, pacified Spain in 189; triumphator for defeat of Ligurian pirates; overwhelmingly defeated formidable forces of Macedonia at Pydna, re-organized the territory, and brought such wealth to Rome as to abolish taxes on Roman people; taking only Phillip's books as booty, died in poverty
P. Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus (cos. 147, 134) conqueror of Macedonia; patron of Polybius, Panaetius, Lucilius, and Terence; distinguished orator; in 168, fought under Aemilius Paullus at battle of Pydna; mural honors at Intercatia; praised by Cato, captured Carthage, ending Third Punic War; in 139, supported Lex Tabellaria of Cassius Longinus; captured Numantia in 133; having supported execution of Ti Gracchus and abrogation of his laws, found murdered in 129
143-108 (Gracchan Reforms and Jugurtha)


Q. Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus (cos 143)
triumph for defeat of Andriscus in Macedon; defeated Critolaus in Locris; known for severe discipline but rare humanity towards the enemy; sponsored lex Maritandis Ordinibus, compelling free citizens to marry in order to increase the depleted population; opposed Gracchi
S. Sulpicius Galba (cos. 144)
defeated by Lusitanians; obtaining peace, treacherously massacred Spaniards, led to uprising of Viriathus; prosecuted by Cato (age 88)
D. Junius Brutus Gallaecus (cos 138)
opposed tribunician corn doles in 138, leading to imprisonment by C. Curiatius; pacified Lusitania, led army to Atlantic, defeated Gallaeci, triumphed; founded Jus Civile
P. Mucius Scaevola (cos 133)
founded Jus Civile; pontifex maximus; refused initial overtures to use force against Ti Gracchus, but after the illegal assembly, drew up senatus consulta ultimum
T. Gracchus (tr. 133)
corona muralis at Carthage; augur; as quaestor, negotiated generous peace with Numantia for which his colleague Mancinus was delivered to the enemy; as tribune in 133, attempted to renew and expand Licinian law, which was vetoed by the tribune Octavius, whom Gracchus deposed; in unprecedented second run for tribuneship, Gracchus was killed by the tribune Satureius
G. Gracchus (tr. 123, 122)
proconsul of Sardinia; tribune in 123, proposed and withdrew bill proposing prosecution for executing citizens without trial; carried forward agrarian laws, fixed price of corn, established dole; replaced senators with equites on juries; reformed assignment of provinces; proposed extension of franchise to Italian allies and settlement of Carthage; violently opposed by consul Opimius, killed by his slave amidst civil turmoil
M. Aemilius Scaurus (cos 115, 107)
renowned princeps senatus; as consul, sponsored sumpturary laws and reforms concerning freedmen, triumphed over Galli and Carni, bribed by Jugurtha into accepting peace terms; opposed Saturninus
M. Livius Drusus (cos. 112)
as tribune, opposed C. Gracchus by successfully bringing similar legislation before senate, including protection of Italian rights, forgiveness of debts, and establishment of 12 colonies for some 36k poor; as proconsul to Macedonia, ejected the cruel Scordisci and possibly won triumph
Q. Caecilius Metellus Numidicus (cos. 109) renowned orator, general, patron of arts; defeated Jugurtha at Muthal, triumphed in 107; opposed by Marius; as censor, attempted to remove Saturninus, who by a murder obtained the tribunate and forced Numidicus into a temporary exile; patron of Archias and Stilo
107-82 (Cimbri and Teutons and Social War) C. Marius (cos. 107, 104, 103, 102, 101, 100, 86)
Augur, triumphator, six-time elected consul; served under Scipio Aemilianus at Numantia; client of Metelli, whom he ostentatiously opposed; married into Julii; served in Spain and against Jugurtha; first to levy capite censi; elected consul in absentia to oppose both Teutons, whom M. defeated at Aquae Sextae, and Cimbri, who were defeated by Catulus and M.; inflicted two defeats on Marsi during Social War; illegal brawl led to his exile, rebellion, sacking of Ostia, and wild massacre of Romans in 87; seized seventh consulship before dying shortly thereafter
Q. Servilius Caepio (cos 106)
triumphed over Lusitanians; restored judicia to senate; plundered rich Tolosa when it revolted to the Cimbri; suffered among worst defeats in Roman history at Arausio
L. Appuleius Saturninus (tr. 103, 100, 99)
ally of Marius, demagogue; sponsored agrarian legislation and Lex Frumentaria; expelled Metellus; founded colonia in Sicily, Macedonia, and Achaia; murdered Memmius, killed by mob
Q. Caecilius Metellus Nepos (cos. 98)
carried lex Caecilia Didia, invalidating omnibus bills, legislation infringing auspices; famously married his mistress Licinia Crassa to save her reputation
Q. Mucius Scaevola Augur (cos 117)
renowned jurist, studied Stoicism under Panaetius; governor of Asia; teacher of Cicero and Atticus; in 88, defended Marius against Sulla's charge of hostilia
M. Livius Drusus (tr. 91)
sponsored far-sighted bill extending citizenship to Italian allies, agrarian bills for populace, restoration of senators to juries, and elevation of equites to senate; his unsolved murder provoked Social War
L. Julius Caesar (cos. 90)
involved in downfall of Saturninus; sponsored lex Julia, which offered citizenship to Italian allies and divided Rome's enemies in the Social War; killed in the Marian massacre of 87
L. Porcius Cato (cos. 89)
as tribune, opposed Saturninus, sponsored bill to recall Metellus Numidicus; as consul, defeated Etruscans in Social War; also possibly killed by Marians
Cn. Pompeius Strabo (cos. 89)
sponsored Lex Pompeia, giving Latin rights to all towns of the Transpadani; propraetor in Sicily 93 and consul (with L Porcius Cato) in 89; during Social War, commanded Roman forces against Italian Allies in northern Italy; ally of Sulla, father of Pompey Magnus
L. Cornelius Cinna (87, 86, 85, 84)
Marian; fought in Social War; illegally deposed by consular colleague Cn Ocatavius, joined with Carbo, Sertorius, and Marius to march on Rome; massacred opponents of Marius; sent Flaccus to fight Mithridates VI; killed in mutiny
Cn. Papirus Carbo (cos 85, 84, 82)
Marian; tribune, reorganized coinage; abandoned Cinna's Liburnian campaign; gave citizenship to last of Italians; supported Marius in war with Sulla, defeated by Q Caecilius Metellus Pius, proscribed, captured and executed by Pompey
L. Quintus Sertorius (pr. 85)
moderate Marian, as "new Hannibal," established government-in-exile during dictatorship of Sulla, attempting to Romanize Spain; brief career as jurist and orator; survivor of defeat at Arausio, spied for Marius at Aquae Sextiae; though enemy of Sulla, savagely punished marauding slaves serving Cinna's massacre; ejected Sullans from Tingis; defeated Pompey at Saguntum; working with Mediterranean pirates, Mithridates, and Italian slaves to overthrow Sulla, he was murdered at a banquet
81-71 (The Order of Sulla)

L. Cornelius Sulla Felix (cos. 88, 80; dict 82, 81, 80)
hero of war with Jugurtha, Cimbri and Teutones, Social War; first Roman to lead army against Rome; plundered Athens; denuded tribunes of power; reformed cursus honorum
Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius
defeated Marsic leader Q. Pompaedius in 88; chief Sullan officer, defeated Carrinas, Carbo, Norbanus; fought 8 years against Sertorius, celebrating triumph after friends of Sertorius murdered him in 72
Cn Cornelius Dolabella (cos 81)
defeated Thracians; prosecuted by Caesar
P. Servilius Vatia Isauricus (cos. 79)
first proconsul of Cilicia; defeated Cilician pirates; captured Corycus; defeated Isauri; assisted Cicero in suppression of Catilinarian conspiracy
M. Aemilius Lepidus (cos. 78)
oppressed Sicily; initially supported by Pompey; opposed Sullan laws; in 77, appointed proconsul of Further Gaul, organized putsch with then-proconsul of Gaul (M. Brutus); the two were defeated by Catulus and Pompey respectively
Q. Lutatius Catulus (cos. 78)
defeated putsch by Lepidus; opposed Gabinian and Manilian laws; supported restoration of tribunitian powers
L. Licinius Lucullus (cos. 74)
conqueror of Mithridates; defended Sullan constitution; organized Asia; foe of triumvirate
C. Cornelius (?) Verres (pr. 74)
mismanaged Sicily, crucified Roman citizens; prosecuted by Cicero
70 - 63 (Servile War, Cilician Pirates, Catilinarian Conspiracy)


M. Licinius Crassus Dives (cos. 70, 55)
triumvir; client of Sulla; defeated Spartacus; patron of tax-farmers; led army to annihilation in Parthia
Cn. Pompeius Magnus (cos. 70, 55, 52)
triumvir; client of Sulla; voted unlimited imperium to defeat Cilician pirates; restored Ptolemy Auletes; led republican army at Pharsalus
Q. Hortensius Hortalus (cos. 69)
renowned orator and "king of the courts" before Cicero; clients included Pompey, Nicomedes, Dolabella, Verres, Murena; opposed Gabinian and Manilian laws
L. Sergius Catilina (pr. 68)
client of Sulla; leader of failed putsch; advocated universal cancellation of debts
M. Tullius Cicero (cos. 63)
renowned orator and philosophe; served under Sulla; accused Sullan favorite of murder in his defense of Sextus Roscius; left for Greece and Rhodes, met with republican idealists, Rufus and Posidonius; studied rhetoric with Molon; quaestor in Sicily, discovered tomb of Archimedes; successfully prosecuted Verres for extortion; as consul, defeated conspiracy of Catiline, declared Pater Patriae by Cato; refused to join triumvirate, persecuted by Clodius; governor of Cilicia; during Caesar's dictatorship, devoted himself to writing; led opposition to Antony, proscribed by the second triumvirate
62-49 (Triumvirate and Gallic Wars)

C. Julius Caesar (cos. 59, 48; dict. 46, 45, 44)
triumvir, pontifex maximus; campaigned in Spain; proconsul of Illyricum and both Gallic provinces; conquered all Gaul, killing and enslaving unprecedented numbers; marched on Rome, defeated several armies of the republic in civil war; annexed Egypt; held lifetime dictatorship and was acclaimed a king outside Italy; assassinated in senate meeting; deified by political supporters
M. Calpurnius Bibulus (cos. 59)
follower of Cato; relentlessly attacked by Caesarians; nervous breakdown as admiral in Dyrrachium
A. Gabinius (cos. 58)
client of Pompey; proposed lex Gabinia; defended by Torquatus
M. Porcius Cato Uticensis (pr. 54; propr. 57, 56)
renowned Stoic, ardent constitutionalist, leader of opposition to triumvirate; reformed treasury and prosecuted Sullans; advocated capital penalty for Catilinarians; annexed Cyprus; in Utica, committed suicide in protest of Caesar's victory over last republican forces; later celebrated as fallen hero of the republican cause
M. Terentius Varro (pr ?; sp cm 59)
Historian, philosopher, naturalist, grammarian, poet, "most learned of all Romans", responsible for Varronian chronology, author of over 600 books; joined Pompey in civil war, twice surrendered to Caesar; withdrew entirely from public life, but proscribed by Antony
L. Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus (cos. 58)
Proconsul in Macedonia, defeated Bessi
C. Memmius (pr. 58)
patron of Lucretius; opposed Caesar's acta
P. Cornelius Lentulus Spinther (cos. 57)
carried bill to recall Cicero; opponent of triumvirate
Q. Caecilius Metellus Nepos (cos. 57)
Proconsul in Nearer Spain; defeated Vaccaei; enemy of Cato yet abandoned Pompey to oppose triumvirate
P. Vatinius (cos. 47)
client of Caesar; organized soldiers in Forum to push through the land grant to Pompey's veterans; suborned Vetteius' charges of 'conspiracy' against Pompey; legate under Caesar in Gaul; expelled from Macedonia by Brutus in 44
P. Clodius Pulcher (aed cr 56)
led mutiny against Lucullus; caused Bona Dea scandal; client of Caesar; exiled Cicero and destroyed his house and villas; organized street gangs to pass triumviral legislation
T. Annius Milo (pr. 54)
client of Pompey; organized gangs to fight Clodius'; worked for Cicero's recall; led unsuccessful revolt against Caesar in 48
L. Domitius Ahenobarbus (cos. 54)
follower of Cato; recalled Cicero from exile; opponent of triumvirate, threatened Caesar with prosecution
Cn. Domitus Calvinus (cos. 53, 40)
Head of election laws court
L. Manlius Torquatus (pr 49)
patron of Catullus, Epicurean philosophe and orator; prosecuted Sullans; fought Caesar at Oricum, Dyrrhachium
Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio Nasica (cos. 52)
follower of Cato; commanded army at Thapsus
48-43 (Caesar's Dictatorship to Lex Titia)

P. Servilius Vatia Isauricus (cos. 48, 41)
defecting to Caesar, commanded Rome in 48; presided over economic collapse, quarreled with Caelius Rufus, a pupil of Cicero who advocated universal debt cancellation, defeating his insurrection with Cicero's client Milo; gave daughter to Octavian, opposed Antony
M. Aemilius Lepidus (cos 46, 42)
supporter of Caesar in civil wars, held Rome as nominal praetor in 49; Caesar's magister equitum in 46-4; named triumvir by lex Titia, removed by Octavian in 36
Gaius Trebonius (pr 48, suf cos 45)
Liberator; client of Caesar; his Lex Trebonia gave 5-year commands to Crassus, Pompey; murdered while proconsul in Asia
C. Cassius Longinus (pr. 44)
Liberator; rescued remnants of Crassus' army after defeat by Parthians, secured Syria; legate under Caesar in Gaul, defected when Caesar crossed Rubicon; defeated Dolabella and secured Asia; defeated by Antony at Phillipi; celebrated as "last of the Romans" by Cremutius Cordus
M. Junius Brutus (pr. 44)
Liberator; nephew to Cato, served with him at Cyprus; followed Pompey to Pharsalus, surrendered to Caesar and assigned governorship of Gaul while Caesar pursued remaining republican forces; after Cato's suicide, Brutus married Cato's daughter Porcia, wrote a panegyric to Cato, joined conspiracy to assassinate Caesar, and left Rome to study philosophy in Greece; in correspondence with Cicero, Brutus and Cassius organized forces in east, taking Antony's brother hostage in Macedonia; at Phillipi, he defeated Octavian but was defeated by Antony
Publius Cornelius Dolabella (suf cos 44)
advocated cancellation of debts; plundered Asia, murdered Trebonius, defeated by Cassius
D. Junius Brutus Albinus (cos. 42)
Liberator; legate under Caesar, destroyed Veneti fleet; after Rubicon, captured Massillia from republican forces; governor Cisalpine Gaul in 44; defended Mutina against Antony; offered amnesty to proscribed; killed by Gallic spy for Antony
M. Antonius (cos. 44, 34, 31)
Triumvir; sponsored lex Antonia, abolishing office of dictator; lex Titia authorized Antony, Lepidus, and Octavian to establish new constitution for the republic
G. Octavius (aka Octavian and later Caesar Augustus) (suff. cos. 43, cos. 33, 31) Triumvir; Caesar's great nephew and appointed heir. Led a private army of Caesar's veterans to initiate himself as a political player. Ultimately (with Agrippa) defeated Antony and established a veiled monarchy (principate).

A compilation by forum member M. Porcius Cato

Did you know?

The origins and early history of Rome are very uncertain. While there are quite specific accounts of Rome's origins and early history, these tend to be of a more mythological nature, and do not stand up as objective history when subjected to modern analysis.



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Leading statesmen of the Roman Republic - Related Topic: Birth of the Roman Republic


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